chapter 7 music of indonesia n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Chapter 7: Music of Indonesia PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Chapter 7: Music of Indonesia

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 41

Chapter 7: Music of Indonesia - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

  • Uploaded on

Chapter 7: Music of Indonesia. Terms & Ideas to know. Gamelan Tuning and scales ( P é log and Sl é ndro) Gendhing Loud and Soft Playing styles Differences between Bali and Java. Southeast Asia/South Pacific. Australia (didjeridu) Malaysia, Thailand, Vietnam, Cambodia, etc. Indonesia

I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
Download Presentation

Chapter 7: Music of Indonesia

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
terms ideas to know
Terms & Ideas to know
  • Gamelan
  • Tuning and scales (Pélog and Sléndro)
  • Gendhing
  • Loud and Soft Playing styles
  • Differences between Bali and Java
southeast asia south pacific
Southeast Asia/South Pacific
  • Australia (didjeridu)
  • Malaysia, Thailand, Vietnam, Cambodia, etc.
  • Indonesia
    • Java
    • Bali
general information on indonesia
General Information on Indonesia
  • Old cultural traditions, but much cultural diversity due to migration
  • Boundaries formed during centuries of European colonial domination; many islands
  • A national language adopted in early twentieth century, but more than two hundred separate languages exist.
  • Pan-Indonesian popular culture is developing, but regional diversity continues.
heavy population centers
Heavy Population Centers
  • Jakarta in Java is the Indonesian capital, about nine million people (New York City is 7,500,000); extreme wealth and poverty
  • Central Java is one of the most densely populated regions in the world
two major ethnic groups
Two Major Ethnic Groups
  • Javanese is the largest ethnic group on the island (about 2/3); common language and cultural traits
  • Sudanese, Language and arts are distinct from the Javanese
general qualities of the people
General Qualities of the People
  • Mostly a farming society, Wet-rice agriculture
  • Religious practices: most profess to be Muslim, but only a small percentage follow orthodox practice. More adhere to an Islam-Hinduism-Buddhism blend. Layer of belief in benevolent and mischievous spirits and in ancestor veneration
kraton in yogyakarta
Kraton in Yogyakarta
  • One of Java’s two major royal courts; official home of the tenth sultan
  • A complex of small buildings and open pavilions
  • Earthly symbol of the ordered universe; oriented to the cardinal directions
  • Ruler lives at the very center; imbued with divine powers
  • Kraton still regarded as a cultural center
gamelon of the kraton in yogyakarta
Gamelon of the Kraton in Yogyakarta
what is a gamelan
What is a Gamelan?
  • Gamelan refers to set of instruments unified by their tuning, and by decorative carvings and paintings
  • Primarily consists of several kinds of metal slab instruments and tuned knobbed gongs
  • Also normally have at least one drum and may have other kinds of instruments; vary in size; some ancient gamelans have small number of instrument
  • Those in central Java usually large with wide range of instruments
gamelan ensembles
Gamelan ‘Ensembles’
  • Gamelan ensembles are kept in many of these court pavilions
  • Some old and used for rare ritual occasions
  • Some newer and used more frequently
  • Most believed to contain special powers
  • Are shown respect and given offerings
Four Sample InstrumentsRebab (fiddle)Saron and Gender are slabinstruments(xylophones)Bonang uses knobbed gongs
gamelan video from bali jvcv9 1 sekar jupun
Gamelan video from Bali (JVCv9-1 “Sekar jupun”)
  • Begins with knobbed gong players alternating with players of xylophone-type instrument
  • The main body of the piece begins with double-headed drum
  • Large gong marks dividing point; the small cymbals are almost constant
  • Notice suling (flute) and rebab (fiddle)
gamelans serve various purposes now
Gamelans Serve Various Purposes Now
  • Used in all-night performances of shadow plays
  • Classical Javanese dance rehearsed regularly and performed for special palace functions
  • More activities outside of the court in contemporary society; sponsored by private individuals, national radio station, public schools and colleges
present day gamelans tuned to one of two scale systems
Present-day gamelans tuned to one of two scale systems
  • Sléndro = Five-tone system made up of nearly equidistant intervals; normally notated 1-2-3-5-6 (no 4)
  • Pélog = Seven-tone system made up of large and small intervals; normally notated 1-2-3-4-5-6-7
  • Gamelans may consist entirely of one or the other or may have a full set of instruments for each system (double ensemble)
  • The scale systems are incompatible and rarely played simultaneously
arrangement of instruments
Arrangement of Instruments
  • No standard arrangement of the instruments in the performance space
  • Almost without exception, they are placed at right angles to one another
  • Reflects Javanese concern with the cardinal directions
  • Larger instruments generally in the back, smaller in the front
two major groupings of instruments
Two major groupings of instruments
  • “Loud-playing” are associated with festivals, processions, and other noisy outdoor events; strictly instrumental; drums and louder metal instruments used
  • “Soft-playing” are intended for more intimate gatherings, often indoors; involved singing; instruments are played softly
examples of javanese gamelan
Examples of Javanese Gamelan
  • More formal and sedate than Bali
  • CD: A Javanese Ghendhing (Gamelan composition) in performance
    • III:2: “Bubaran Kembang Pacar”
    • III:4: Ladrang Wilujeng
gamelan construction
Gamelan construction
  • Bronze is the preferred metal
  • Brass and iron are also used, especially in rural areas; cheaper
  • Bronze gamelan instruments are forged in a long and difficult process; metal worker held in high esteem; forging requires great skill
  • Forging also imbued with mystical significance
construction cont
Construction (cont.)
  • Process is believed to make one especially vulnerable to dangerous forces in the spirit world; smiths make ritual preparation
  • Largest gongs require a full month of labor; a truckload of coal
  • A month of meditation, prayer, fasting, and preparation by the smith
  • Careful handling; a false hit can crack the gong and ruin the work
each gamelan is generally a unique set
Each Gamelan is Generally a Unique Set
  • Would look and sound out of place in another ensemble
  • Attempting to copy the tuning and design of palace instruments used to be forbidden
  • Reserved for the ruler and his power
  • Great care is taken to arrive at a pleasing tuning; one that is seen to fit the particular physical condition of the instruments; fits the taste of the individual owner
javanese music is closely interrelated with other performing arts
Javanese music is closely interrelated with other performing arts
  • “Concerts” of gamelan music rare; more often as social event
  • Might be played to commemorate birth, circumcision, wedding; or sponsored by family as background music for social event; guests socialize and talk freely
  • Most often performed as accompaniment for dance or theater
gamelan and drama
Gamelan and Drama
  • The ensemble might accompany a drama based on Javanese legendary history
  • Often used in shadow puppet theater—wayang kulit; Performances normally last until dawn
  • Master puppeteer, dhalang, operates all the puppets; story typically puppeteer’s own rendition of a well-known story, or episode from the Ramayana or Mahabharata
  • Musicians do not play constantly, but must be ready to respond to a signal from the puppeteer; a good musician knows many hundreds of pieces
the shadow puppet show wayang kulit
The shadow puppet show (wayang kulit)
  • JVCv10-2.
  • III:5 and 6 – “Playon Lasem” (slendro pathet nam)
bali a small island just east of java
Bali: A Small Island Just East of Java
  • Spectacular beauty; most people involved in some kind of artistic work
  • Blend of Hindu and Buddhist practices; not as much Islam influence
balinese gamelan
Balinese Gamelan
  • Music similar to Java, but not the same; more variety of ensembles; music more dynamic and exciting
  • Instruments tuned slightly off to create “shimmering” sound (beating effect)
beating effect
Beating Effect

John Backus, The Acoustical Foundations of Music

kosalia arini
“Kosalia Arini”
  • CD example (III:7) older piece but notice more asymmetical, less “stiff” quality than Javanese
  • By Wayan Beratha
  • CD Example III:8 Batak Music from Sumatra--Bamboo Tube Zithers emulate gong.
  • Beating Effect!
indonesian popular music
Indonesian Popular Music
  • Many popular styles
  • Examples:
  • CD III:9 Begadang II
  • CD III:10 Shufflendang-Shufflending
  • CD III:11 Distorsi
terms ideas to know1
Terms & Ideas to know
  • Gamelan
  • Tuning and scales (Pélog and Sléndro)
  • Gendhing
  • Loud and Soft Playing styles
  • Differences between Bali and Java
  • Beating Effect
east meets west minimalism
East Meets West--Minimalism
  • Steve Reich
  • Terry Riley
  • Philip Glass

Koyaanisqatsi-Life out of Balance

assignment 6

Assignment 6

Write an essay of at least one page, double spaced in which you describe five different aspects of this course which fulfill the five course goals found in the syllabus. More than just a list, each paragraph should develop, in detail, how each element fulfills each of the five goals.