CHAPTER 15 [AMERICAN COLONY]. CAMBA, ESTRERA, GAYOSO, LACERNA, LEE, TAN, TOMINEZ, UGADDAN . THE CONTINUING RESISTANCE. The capture of General Emilio Aguinaldo at Palanan , Isabela in 1901.The Filipnino -American war ended .
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CAMBA, ESTRERA, GAYOSO, LACERNA,
LEE, TAN, TOMINEZ, UGADDAN
About 300,000 was estimated total casualities of the reconcentration system.
William H. Carter
Similar outbreaks in the island of Negros, Panay, Cebu, Leyte
September 22, 1853 – April 30, 1934
Jolo- is where Hassan was to be taken for imprisonment when he was captured.
-brought confirmed reports of Hassan’s location in the crater of Bud Bagsak.
A Malay or Indonesian dagger with a wavy blade.
known as kalis in the southern Philippines
a thick, leaf-shaped, single-edged blade sword. It is a weapon used by Islamic tribes in the Southern Philippines.
-Authorities had been looking for him after a series of murderous robberies associated with him in Borneo.
-Organized his own rebel band and defied American rule from 1905-1906.
-Bud Bagsak Affair in 1913
-Jikiri Threat in 1909
-located in the northern series of mountain ranges.
To confront the Muslims was a relatively small contingent of American troops composed of 65 men from the 6th Infantry, 65 men from the 4th Cavalry, and 130 soldiers from the 28th Mountain Battery.
The battle began on March 5, 1906 and lasted up to the morning of March 8.
April 16, 1906- Wood held his last conciliatory conference with the datus and local leaders before turning over the governorship of the Moro Province to Gen. Tasker H. Bliss.
The non combatants were persuaded to avoid conflict and only the warriors remained determined to fight the colonial forces. Part of the compromise was the withdrawal of american troops from jolo island.
In the 1990s, there were more than 100 highland tribal groups constituted approximately 3% of the population. The upland tribal groups were a blend in ethnic origin like other lowland Filipinos, although they did not have contact with the outside world. They displayed a variety of social organization, cultural expression and artistic skills. They showed a high degree of creativity, usually employed to embellish utilitarian objects, such as bowls, baskets, clothing, weapons and spoons. These groups ranged from various Igorot tribes, a group that includes the Bontoc, Ibaloi, Ifugao, Isneg, Kalinga, Kankana-ey and Tinguian, who built the Rice Terraces. They also covered a wide spectrum in terms of their integration and acculturation with lowland Christian and Muslim Filipinos. Native groups such as the Bukidnon in Mindanao, had intermarried with lowlanders for almost a century. Other groups such as the Kalinga in Luzon have remained isolated from lowland influence.
There were several indigenous groups living in the Cordillera Central of Luzon in 1990. At one time it was employed by lowland Filipinos in a pejorative sense, but in recent years it came to be used with pride by native groups in the mountain region as a positive expression of their ethnic identity. The Ifugaos of Ifugao Province, the Bontocs, Kalinga, Tinguian, the Kankana-ey and Ibaloiwere all farmers who constructed the rice terraces for many centuries.
In the southern Philippines, upland and lowland tribal groups were concentrated on Mindanao and western Visayas, although there are several indigenous groups such as the Mangyan living inMindoro. Among the most important groups found on Mindanao are collectively called the Lumad, and includes the Manobo, Bukidnon of Bukidnon Province, Bagobo, Mandaya, and Mansaka, who inhabited the mountains bordering the Davao Gulf; the Subanon of upland areas in the Zamboanga; the Mamanua in the Agusan-Surigao border region; the Bila-an, Tiruray and Tboli in the region of the Cotabato province, and the Samal and Bajau in the Sulu Archipelago. The tribal groups of the Philippines are known for their carved wooden figures, baskets, weaving, pottery and weapons.
COMPROMISE WITH COLONIALISM
IN THE LOCAL LEVEL
The same was true of the campaign against unsanitary living conditions and diseases that frequently led to epidemics like cholera, dysentery, smallpox and malaria
The critical role of American teachers was underlined by the Governor of the Moro Province, Brig. Gen. John J. Pershing. He remarked: “ The school system depends for its success entirely upon the American teachers, and although Filipino teachers do excellent work under proper supervision, educational direction must for some time remain in the hands of the American teachers.”
His initial work asmedical surgeon in Malabag, Lanaoprovided opportunities to win the Ilanuns, a Muslim sub-ethnic group.
Secretary of the Interior Worcester- had gotten DomingaAtandada of Dullayan and Rafael Baluyunoan to accept American rule.
The pacification efforts of the Americans found very encouraging prospects in the pioneering activities of former military men like Samuel Kane and Al Hora whose business explorations and adventures provided later American officers and officials insights into Ifugao character and psychology.
Capt. Lewis Patstone and Lt. Levi Case- army officers who contributed a lot in preparing the Ifugaos for the eventual establishment of American political structures in the area, integrating not only the Ifugaos but also the other Igorots into the Constabulary as soldiers and into the local government as presidentes (mayors) or cabecillas.
-The Tausug version of this treaty clearly substantiates this view. While the English version clearly provides for the establishment of American rule in Sulu and the acceptance of American sovereignty by the Sultan and the datus.
English version of the treaty- allowed the Americans to interfere even in the resolution of disputes concerning matters related to slavery, taxes, peace and order, trade, commerce, foreign relations, except in the matters pertaining to religious practices and customs.
The conflict between the Sulu people and the American authorities creates an adverse situation that presaged the unilateral obligation of the treaty in March 1904 by the colonial government as expressed through Governor-General William Howard Taft and Moro Province Governor Leonard Wood.
DatuKalbi and DatuJulkanain- signed the document, the Patikul political leadership which had been added to those who supported American rule.
-the flourishing trading point in the southern part of Jolo.
Lanao and Cotabato- where Moro armed disturbances were effectively suppressed.
- where the Americans demonstrated military technology
There is, therefore, no doubt that with comprehensive provisions of the agreement, the beginning of the end sultanate was initiated, at the same time also the gradual rise of the filipino power over the moros would become a reality in subsequent political developments in moroland.
The republican administration had been associated with the acquisition overseas colonies for the business or economic interest of american society.
Rapid Filipinization of the government was also evident in the legislative branch of the government.
Under the Jones Law, a bicameral legislature was created. It is composed of a 24-member Senate as the upper house and a House of Representatives as the house chamber. All the members of the legislature were elected except the two senators from the non-Christian sector, who were appointed by the governor general
Restraints of Elitism
The Americans saw the natural inclination of the elite to the colonial power. The interest of the elite were compatible with those of colonialism and the Americans were ready to give them significant share of power, wealth, and status in the islands. Aside from that, their rights to new access to external power was recognized. Therefore, a lot of practical advantages were given to the elite from the American colonial government compared to the almost nil offerings under Spanish rule.
That was also the basis of American readiness to give more and more to Filipinos the administration of the bureaucracy except the highest executive post in the islands, the position of Secretary of Public Instruction, and The National Treasury, The BIR, Bureau of Customs and the local treasuries.
Consequently, the Philippines became an exclusive American market with American goods literally moving into the colony without limitation. But Philippine exports to the American market were governed by quotas and limited only to raw materials needed by American business. Thus, as relations of economic dependency became the pattern of Philippine relations with the United States, conversely, American control of the Philippine economy, and consequently, Philippine leadership, was firmly established by the time the Underwood-Simmons Tariff Act was enacted in 1913 abolishing the quotas on Philippine exports
COLONIAL POLITICS: TOWARDS COMPLETE AUTONOMY
Republicans in the United States argued that Harrison’s policy of Filipinization was premature and that the takeover of jobs by Filipinos resulted only in a marked deterioration of services. To support this position, Harding sent out Gen. Leonard Wood and W. Cameron Forbes. The two reported in October 1921 that the islands were not prepared for independence and that many educated Filipinos wished to remain under American tutelage.
Gov. Wood got himself caught in the web of filipino partisan politics combined with the highly emotional issue of independence
The Governor did not only liberally his power to veto bills passed by the Legislature, but he even went to the extend of altering measures already passed by the Legislature, and then affixing his signature after the alteration made.