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Latin American and Caribbean Regional Expert Workshop on Sustainable Use of Biodiversity Buenos Aires, 13 May – 16 June 2005. Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity Instituto Nacional de Technología Agropecuaria (INTA) . Item 1 – Opening. Welcome and introductions:

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Latin American and Caribbean Regional Expert Workshop on Sustainable Use of BiodiversityBuenos Aires, 13 May – 16 June 2005

Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity

Instituto Nacional de Technología Agropecuaria (INTA)

item 1 opening
Item 1 – Opening

Welcome and introductions:

  • CBD – Secretariat
  • Government of Argentina:
    • Secretary of Environment
    • Secretary of Agriculture
    • Cancilleria Argentina
  • Instituto Nacional de Technología Agropecuaria (INTA)
  • Participants
  • Training team
item 1 objectives
Item 1 – Objectives
  • Understand application of the Addis Ababa Principles of Sustainable Use
  • Understanding ecosystem services, including tools and methods to assess them
  • Understanding financial costs and benefits and tools to assess them
  • Assess applicability of Addis Ababa Principles of Sustainable Use to Agricultural Biodiversity
item 2 agenda
Item 2 – Agenda
  • Welcome and introductions
  • Adoption of agenda and mandate
  • Objectives of the workshop
  • Key terms and concepts
  • Overview of Addis Ababa Principles
  • Application of Addis Ababa Principles
item 2 agenda5
Item 2 – Agenda
  • Ecosystem services assessment
  • Financial costs and benefits
  • Assessment of the workshop
  • Other matters
  • Adoption of workshop report
  • Closing remarks
item 2 mandate
Item 2 – Mandate

Decision VII/12 -

  • Calls for regional technical expert workshops to cover:
  • Sustainable use
  • Ecosystem services assessment
  • Financial cost and benefits
  • Invites Parties to:
  • Implement the Addis Ababa Guidelines
  • Integrate/Mainstream them in domestic measures
  • Disseminate experiences and lessons learned
item 2 mandate7
Item 2 – Mandate

Decision VII/12

Invites research on:

item 2 mandate8
Item 2 – Mandate

Decision VII/12

  • Invites assessment of the applicability of the Addis Ababa Principles to Agricultural Biodiversity
  • Calls for guidance about the principles and guideline in relation to the CBD working programme on Agricultural Biodiversity
item 3 key terms concepts
Item 3 – Key terms/concepts

Conceptual framework:

Ecosystem services sustain life, biodiversity, and livelihoods

item 3 key terms concepts10
Item 3 – Key terms & concepts

Biodiversity …

The variety and variability of living organisms at the genetic, species and ecosystem levels and [the] ecological complexes, of which they are part

item 3 key terms concepts11
Item 3 – Key terms & concepts

Biological resources …

Include genetic resources, organisms or parts thereof, populations, or any other biotic component of ecosystems with actual or potential use or value for humanity

item 3 key terms concepts12
Item 3 – Key terms & concepts

Agricultural biodiversity …

Includes all components of biological diversity of relevance to food and agriculture – the variety and variability of plants, animals and micro-organisms at genetic, species and ecosystem level which are necessary to sustain key funcions in the agroecosystem, its structures and processes.

item 3 key terms concepts13
Item 3 – Key terms & concepts

Sustainable use …

The use of components of biological diversity that does not lead to long-term decline of biological diversity while maintaining the potential to meet the needs and aspirations of present and future generations

item 3 key terms concepts14
Item 3 – Key terms & concepts

Use …

May be either consumptive or non-consumptive

item 3 key terms concepts15
Item 3 – Key terms & concepts

Sustainability …

Is the probability that a use will be sustainable and is dependent on:

  • Maintenance of biological diversity and key ecological functions, and
  • Population(s) of target species remaining above thresholds needed for long-term viability, and
  • The component of biological diversity remaining a significant resource for people.
item 3 key terms concepts16
Item 3 – Key terms & concepts

Ecosystem …

Is a dynamic complex of plant, animal and micro-organism communities and their non-living environment interacting as a functional unit

item 3 key terms concepts17
Item 3 – Key terms & concepts

Ecosystem services …

  • Provisioning - food, water, fiber and fuel
  • Regulating - climate, water quality, disease
  • Cultural - spiritual, aesthetic, recreation
  • Supporting - primary production, soil formation
item 3 key terms concepts18
Item 3 – Key terms & concepts

Adaptive management …

Is a cyclic, learning-oriented approach to the management of complex environmental systems that are characterized by high levels of uncertainty about system processes*

* Based on a definition provided in Jacobson, C. (August 2003) Introduction to adaptive management. (Online) URL:

item 3 key terms concepts19
Item 3 – Key terms & concepts

Use regime …

The sum of the activities applied to the management and use of a geographically discrete biological resource

item 3 key terms concepts20
Item 3 – Key terms & concepts

Resource managers …

Those individuals directly responsible and accountable for managing a component of biological diversity for use

item 3 key terms concepts21
Item 3 – Key terms & concepts


  • Ecosystems and their components change
  • The supply of biological resources is limited
  • Biological resources can be used while maintaining ecological processes, species and their variability above thresholds for long-term viability
  • Secure delivery of ecosystem services requires management at the landscape scale
item 3 key terms concepts22
Item 3 – Key terms & concepts


  • People depend on wild harvests
  • Women are often primary users
  • “Precaution” is the rule
  • Sustainable use policies can protect natural land/seascapes
item 3 key terms concepts23
Item 3 – Key terms & concepts

Factors affecting sustainability:

  • Internal factors
  • External factors
item 3 key terms concepts24
Item 3 – Key terms & concepts

Sustainable use and the Millennium Development Goals

  • Poverty reduction
  • Livelihood security
  • Health
  • Incentives for conservation of biodiversity
item 3 key terms concepts25
Item 3 – Key terms & concepts

Ecosystem Approach

  • Biodiversity is considered with economic and social factors
  • Management is integrated
  • Social process
item 3 key terms concepts26
Item 3 – Key terms & concepts

Other relevant CBD initiatives

  • 2010 target
  • Incentive measures
  • Indigenous peoples
  • Tourism
item 4 addis ababa principles
Regional Case Studies

Uso sostenible de quanacos en esquemas mixtos de producción en la estepa patagónica - Julieta von Thungen, Argentina

El uso sostenible de loro hablador en la ecoregion de Argentina – Ricardo Banchs, Flabio Moscchione, Isabel Barrios; Argentina

Conservación in situ de amaranto en una zona representativa los andes meridionales occidentales –Maria Gloria Quispe Quispe, Peru

Item 4 – Addis Ababa Principles
item 5 applying the principles
Item 5 – Applying the Principles
  • Discussion points
    • Relevance of the Addis Ababa principles to agricultural biodiversity:
      • Do individual principles have more relevance than others?
      • Does the relevance vary with the scale/focus of agricultural biodiversity use?
      • If there is relevance how should the principles be applied?
    • Relevance of the Ecosystem Approach in the context of management of agricultural biodiversity
    • Relevance of agricultural biodiversity to meeting the Millennium Development Goals
item 4 addis ababa principles29
Item 4 – Addis Ababa Principles

Principle 1: Get the legal framework right

Congruent policies, laws and Institutions at all levels of government - with links between them

item 4 addis ababa principles30
Item 4 – Addis Ababa Principles

Principle 2. Responsibility with accountability

  • Empowerment
  • Access rights
  • Government oversight
    • Monitoring
    • Authority
item 4 addis ababa principles31
Item 4 – Addis Ababa Principles

Principle 3. Avoid perverse incentives

  • Market distortions
  • Habitat degradation
  • Inequity
item 4 addis ababa principles32
Item 4 – Addis Ababa Principles

Principle 4. Use adaptive management

item 4 addis ababa principles33
Item 4 – Addis Ababa Principles

Principle 5. Minimize adverse impacts on the ecosystem

  • Management goals and practices
  • Understand role of managed resource
  • Monitor impact of use
item 4 addis ababa principles34
Item 4 – Addis Ababa Principles

Principle 6. Invest in appropriate research

  • Applied - to answer management questions
  • Interdisciplinary
  • Government vs private
item 4 addis ababa principles35
Item 4 – Addis Ababa Principles

Principle 7. Get the scale of use right

  • Jurisdictional
  • Ecological
  • Socio-Economic
item 4 addis ababa principles36
Item 4 – Addis Ababa Principles

Principle 8. Seek international cooperation where necessary

  • Shared resources
  • Management needs
  • Optional approaches to cooperation
item 4 addis ababa principles37
Item 4 – Addis Ababa Principles

Principle 9: Use an interdisciplinary and participatory approach wherever possible

  • Government
  • Resource managers
  • Local stakeholders
  • Others
item 5 applying the principles38
Regional Case Studies

Necesidead de nuevo paradigm para la sustentabilidad del uso de los agroecosistemas: el caso del Chaco - Jorge Adámoli, Argentina

Ostión del Norte: Northern scallop (Argopecten purpuratus) at La Rinconada, Antofagasta II Región de Chile – Leonardo Núñez Montaner, Chile

Uso sostenible de recursos fitogenéticos: papa, maiz, poroto en el NOA – Andrea Clausen, Argentina

Item 5 – Applying the Principles
item 4 addis ababa principles39
Item 4 – Addis Ababa Principles

Principle 10: Know the value of the resource

item 4 addis ababa principles40
Item 4 – Addis Ababa Principles

Principle 11: Minimize waste and adverse environmental impacts

  • Incidental take
  • Multiple products
  • Optimize benefits
item 4 addis ababa principles41
Item 4 – Addis Ababa Principles

Principle 12: Ensure equitable distribution of benefits meet local needs

  • Who shares?
  • Balancing risks with benefits
  • Incentives
item 4 addis ababa principles42
Item 4 – Addis Ababa Principles

Principle 13: Management costs should be covered by income

  • Direct costs and opportunity costs
  • Benefit flows
  • Economic incentives
item 4 addis ababa principles43
Item 4 – Addis Ababa Principles

Principle 14: Educate people about sustainable use

  • Capacity enhancement
  • Communications
  • Public awareness
item 5 applying the principles44
Item 5 – Applying the Principles

Aligning the principles for action

Policy Related

No Principle

1 Provide a legal/policy framework

2 Delegate responsibility and accountability

3 Remove perverse incentives

7 Link jurisdictional authority to scale of use

8 Where needed, promote international cooperation

13 Internalize management costs

Support/Service Related

No Principle

6 Promote/support interdisciplinary research

10 Economic valuation

14 Provide education on sustainable use

Management Related

No Principle

4 Use adaptive management

5 Minimize impact on the ecosystem

9 Take an interdisciplinary approach

11 Minimize waste

12 Distribute benefits equitably

item 5 applying the principles45
Item 5 – Applying the Principles

Regional Case Studies

  • The case of mezcales and corn – Jorge Larson Guerra, Mexico
  • Agricultural biodiversity irradiation centers – Rubens Onofre Nodari, Brazil
  • Conservation of two Bahamian hot pepper varieties – Kenneth Richardson, Bahamas
  • Sustainable use case policy on Cassava: Manihot eculenta – Rufus Leandre, St Lucia
item 5 applying the principles46
Item 5 – Applying the Principles

Sequence of management planning steps


Que incluye la Biodiversidad Agrícola: *Extraido de: The Scope of Agricultural Biodiversity, Appendix, CBD-Decision V/5 Agricultural Biological Diversity (

  • Recursos Genéticos para alimentos y agricultura:

Estos constituyen las unidades principales de producción en agricultura, incluyendo especies cultivadas, especies domesticadas y plantas y animales silvestres manejados, así como los parientes silvestres de las especies cultivadas y domesticadas,

- Recursos genéticos vegetales cultivados y :

      • Pasturas y especies de pastizales naturales
      • Recursos genéticos de árboles que son una parte integral de los sistemas agrícolas
    • Recursos genéticos animales domésticos y silvestres en general:
      • y recursos genéticos de peces, en casos en que la producción de peces es parte del sistema productivo
      • Recursos genéticos de insectos {invertebrados}
    • Recursos genéticos de microbios y hongos
b componentes de la diversidad agr cola que brinda servicios ecol gicos tales como
B. Componentes de la diversidad agrícola que brinda servicios ecológicos tales como:
  • Ciclado de nutrientes, descomposición de la materia orgánica, y mantenimiento de la fertilidad del suelo
  • Regulación de Plagas y Enfermedades {mantenimiento de relaciones entre presas y predadores, reguladores de poblaciones, sp. saneadoras del ambiente, etc.}
  • Polinización (tanto de especies cultivadas como silvestres) {invertebrados, aves, mamiferos}
  • Mantenimiento y mejoramiento de la fauna silvestre local y los hábitat en sus paisajes
  • Mantenimiento de los ciclos hidrológicos {coberturas vegetales y forestales}
  • Control de la Erosión {cobertura y manejo correcto del suelo y la agricultura},
  • Regulación del clima y del secuestro de carbono {forestacion, uso y manejo del suelo con siembra directa, conservación de bordes, etc}

C. Factores Abióticos, que tienen un efecto determinante sobre los aspectos de la biodiversidad agrícola {conservación de la calidad del agua, el aire}

  • Conocimiento tradicional y local de la biodiversidad agrícola, factores culturales y procesos participativos.
  • Turismo asociado con los paisajes agrícolas
  • Otros factores socio-económicos

D. Dimesiones socio-económicas y culturales, dado que la biodiversidad agrícola está moldeada en gran parte por las actividades humanas y las prácticas de manejo. Estas incluyen:

principales amenazas para el uso sostenible de la biodiversidad agr cola
Principales amenazas para el uso sostenible de la biodiversidad agrícola
  • Simplificación de ecosistemas y paisajes por deforestación, intensificación y reemplazo de ambientes debida a la extensificación agrícola, particularmente basada en monocultivos.
  • Erosión genética de especies vegetales, animales, y microorganismos por sobre-uso o alteración de la funcionalidad de los ecosistemas bajo usos productivos.
  • Pérdida de interacciones entre organismos lo que afecta procesos biológicos vitales para el funcionamiento del ecosistema, la dinámica de las poblaciones (tanto de planta-planta, plantas-microorganismos, plantas-animales, animales-animales, animales-ecosistema, ecosistema-microorganismos, etc.), así como los potenciales bienes y servicios para la producción agropecuaria y el bienestar humano.
  • Contaminación de suelos, agua, y aire por agroquímicos o residuos ganaderos
  • Intoxicación y mortandad de especies (plantas y animales) por usos y malos usos de agroquímicos.
  • Pérdida de hábitat para la diversidad de organismos que habitan los agroecosistemas
  • Erosión de suelos y cambios en condiciones físico-quimico y biológicas que pueden alterar su resistencia y resiliencia.
  • Cambio climático
  • Erosion cultural por perdida de conocimiento ancestral
  • ….otras?
Objetivos del Programa de Trabajo para la Biodiversidad Agrícola del CDB
  • Promover los efectos positivos y mitigar los impactos negativos de las practicas agrícolas sobre la diversidad biológica en los agroecosistemas y su interfase con otros ecosistemas.
  • Promover la conservación y el uso sustentable de los recursos genéticos de valor actual y potencial para la alimentación y la agricultura, y
  • Promover la distribución justa y equitativa de los beneficios derivados del uso de los recursos genéticos.

Implementación se hará siguiendo el abordaje ecosistémico.

Programa de trabajo para la biodiversidad agrícola del CDB
  • Evaluación: evaluaciones a nivel de los países, sobre el estado y tendencias de la biodiversidad agrícola, sus causas y el conocimiento para su manejo.
  • Manejo Adaptativo:Identificación y promoción de prácticas de manejo adaptativo, tecnologías y políticas relacionadas y medidas de incentivos, para promover impactos positivos y mitigar los negativos de la agricultura sobre la biodiversidad, y mejorar productividad y capacidad para sostener actividades, expandiendo el conocimiento, entendiendo y alertando sobre los múltiples bienes y servicios brindados por los diferentes niveles y funciones de la biodiversidad agrícola.
  • Creación de Capacidades:Promoción de la participación y fortalecimiento de capacidades de los productores y otros actores en el manejo sostenible de la biodiversidad agrícola, incrementar sus beneficios y promover acciones responsables.
  • Mainstreaming(Promoción/Priorización): Apoyo al desarrollo de planes nacionales o estrategias para la conservación y uso sostenible de la biodiversidad agrícola y promover su promoción e integración en programas y planes de acción sectoriales coordinados e integrados.

Otros temas transversales abordados por el Programa de trabajo para la biodiversidad agrícola del CDB

  • Tecnologías de restricciones de uso genético (GURTs)
  • Iniciativa Internacional para la conservación y uso sostenible de los polinizadores.
item 5 applying the principles54
Item 5 – Applying the Principles

Principles of the Ecosystem Approach

item 5 applying the principles55

Manage at the

appropriate scale

Management promotes



Focus on functional

Relationships & processes


benefit Sharing

Use adaptive



for change



Involve all

relevant sectors


lag effect

Rely on all

relevant information

Effects of


Structure and function

Decentralise management





and use

Objectives are

set by choice


Management at

appropriate spatial and

temporal scales


market distortions,

align incentives and

internalise costs and benefits

Item 5 – Applying the Principles
  • Applying the principles of the Ecosystem Approach
item 6 ecosystem services assessment
Item 6 – Ecosystem services assessment

Interrelationships between ecosystem services and human well being

item 6 ecosystem services assessment57
Item 6 – Ecosystem services assessment

Ecosystem values and valuation

item 6 ecosystem services assessment58
Item 6 – Ecosystem Services Assessment

Valuation tools

  • Revealed preference tools
    • Change in productivity
    • Cost-based approaches
    • Hedonic pricing
    • Travel-cost method
  • Stated preference tools
    • Contingent valuation
    • Contingent ranking
  • Benefits transfer
item 6 ecosystem services assessment59

Source: MA

Item 6 – Ecosystem services assessment

Example: Benefits flows from selected countries

item 6 ecosystem services assessment60
Item 6 – Ecosystem services assessment

Global status of ecosystem services

item 6 ecosystem services assessment61
Regional Case Studies

Proyecto Nacional de Gestión Ambiental MARN/BM/GEF –Ernesto Lopez Zepeda, El Salvador

La biodiversidad, sus bienes y servicios ambientales en ecosistemas sometidos a producciones mixtas de la Pampa Deprimida - Nestor Maceira, Argentina

Uso, valoracíon y promocíon de plantas medicinales, una estrategia nacional – José Antonio Gómez, Colombia

Resultados de la Valoración Económica de los Recursos Naturales de Parque Nacional Coiba; Método de Transferencia de Beneficios – Eustorgio Jaen Nunez, Panama

Item 6 – Ecosystem services assessment
item 6 ecosystem services assessment62
Item 6 – Ecosystem services assessment

Resources on ecosystem services valuation:

  • Universities of Maryland and Rhode Island:

  • Training guide on valuation for NBSAPs (UNEP/IUCN):

  • IUCN guidelines for protected area managers on the economic values of protected areas:

item 6 ecosystem services assessment63
Item 6 – Ecosystem services assessment

Resources continued:

  • Ramsar guide for policy makers and planners on the economic valuation wetlands:

  • World Bank/Nature Conservancy/IUCN report on valuation:

  • OECD Handbook of biodiversity valuation
item 6 ecosystem services assessment64
Item 6 – Ecosystem services assessment

Discussion points

  • Impact of sustainable use and non-sustainable use on livelihoods and ecosystem goods and services
  • Socio-economic factors that influence patterns and intensity of use
  • Economic and social values of ecosystem goods and services
item 7 financial costs benefits66
Item 7 – Financial costs & benefits
  • Example: cost of conservation
  • Direct cost: park management, tourism infrastructure and management
  • Indirect costs: damages outside protected areas by wildlife
  • Opportunity cost: land development
item 7 financial costs and benefits

(Cape Floristic Region, South Africa)

Sources: Frazee (2001), Krug (2001)

Item 7 – Financial costs and benefits

Costs of conservation through parks

item 7 financial costs benefits69
Item 7 – Financial costs & benefits

Who receives the benefits?

item 7 financial costs benefits70
Item 7 – Financial costs & benefits

Disparity between private and social costs and benefits of biodiversity conservation and sustainable use is an important reason for biodiversity decline.

Individual land users often fail to capture the social benefits of biodiversity conservation and sustainable use.

item 7 financial costs benefits71
Item 7 – Financial costs & benefits
  • Responses:
  • Demonstrate value in accordance with TEV: identify all benefits, undertake valuation
  • Use capture mechanisms (incentive measures), for instance:
    • Park entry fees
    • Payments for environmental services
    • Markets for biodiversity goods and services
item 7 financial costs benefits72
Item 7 – Financial costs & benefits
  • Discussion:
  • Types of costs and benefits of conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity
  • Role of financial costs and benefits
  • Distributional effects and their implications
item 7 financial costs benefits73
Regional Case Studies

Impacto de los agentes de biocontrol sobre las comunidades microbianas – Laura Gassoni, Argentina

Programa del Lagarto y conservación – Mario Baudoin, Bolivia

Los efectos sociales de los cambios en la agricultura - Carlos Reboratti, Argentina

Uso sostenible de recursos zoogenèticos: el caso de las cabras y vicuñas – Carlos Mezzadra, Argentina

Item 7 – Financial costs & benefits
item 7 financial costs benefits74
Regional Case Studies

Los subsidios agricolas y su impacto sobre la sustentabilidad de la producción agropecuaria de Argentina –Alejandra Sarquis, Argentina

Item 7 – Financial costs & benefits
item 8 assessment of the workshop
Item 8 – Assessment of the Workshop
  • Working groups - Questions
  • Feedback
item 8 assessment of the workshop76
Item 8 – Assessment of the Workshop

Development of key recommendations to SBSTTA concerning :

  • Applicability of AA principles to agricultural biodiversity
  • Assessment of Ecosystem Services
  • Financial costs and benefits associated with conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity
item 11 closure of the workshop
Closing remarks

Instituto Nacional de Technología Agropecuaria (INTA)

Government of Argentina

Technical support team

CBD Secretariat


Item 11 – Closure of the workshop
thank you
Thank you!