The Mexican Revolution The Mexican States
Latin America After independence • Latin American economies devastated by wars of independence. • Creole upper class continued to dominate society and economy. • Caudillos (strong men) ruled most countries. • Military was the only way for men to advance in social standing
Mexico After Independence • Military dominated politics. • Catholic Church kept its role as major economic force • Largest banking system in the country • General Antonio López de Santa Anna dominated era • President 9 different times; lost it after the Mexican War • Liberal Government took over after Santa Anna • Stripped the Church of power; forced to sell land
Mexico After Independence • In the War of Reform (1857-1861) Liberals under Benito Juárez gained control of Mexico. (Mexican Civil War) • 1863-1867 Napoleon III of France controlled Mexico with help of Mexican conservatives. • Left Ferdinand Maximilian in charge • Liberals ruled until 1876, but little was done to modernize Mexico.
Mexico under Porfirio Diaz • Diaz ruled Mexico 1876-1911. Ruled as a caudillo. • Mexico’s inefficient economic system revolved around the hacienda.To achieve his goal of economic development Diaz allowed foreigners to control much of Mexico’s wealth. • Diaz’s rule was harsh with an iron fist • Pan o palo(bread or the club)
Mexico Under Diaz • Imprisoned opponents; used army to keep peace at any cost • Rurales • Diaz helped modernize Mexico by encouraging foreign investment • Suppressed political rights for economic development • Exports boomed; railroads expanded quickly; yet most remained poor • Wealth concentrated in hands of foreign investors, Mexican elite • Offered share of the spoils
Mexico under Diaz • Catholic Church became a pillar of Diaz’s dictatorship • Reestablished all monasteries and nunneries • Reestablished church schools • Wealth began to accumulate in the hands of the church in return for turning a deaf ear to the complaints of the masses
Social Causes of the Revolution • Land policy of Diaz – a small minority owned/controlled most of the land (elite landholders). • Indians held 2% of the nations land • Nonnative's allowed to take property from indigenous populations. • Standards of living for most Mexicans declined. • Production shifted to export crops (sugar and coffee) – Mexico was less able to feed itself! • Harsh working conditions for people – long hours, low wages, dangerous conditions.
Economic Causes • Diaz developed an industrial economy with large subsidies from the United States and other foreign powers. • Transportation, mining, oil; foreigners owned 90% of the value • “Mexico, the mother of foreigners and the stepmother of Mexicans.” • Economic recession / U.S. depression 1906-1907. • Food crisis 1907-1910 (crop failures) led to inflation and declining wages • Workers strikes
Political causes • In 55 years between Mexican Independence in 1821 and Diaz’s rise to power (1877), the presidency changed hands 75 times. • Diaz rigged elections, bribed officials, bullied press • Friends and family were promoted or given governmental positions
The overthrow of Diaz • ●Reasons for the overthrow of Diaz: • Lack of upward mobility. • Foreign domination of industry. • Concentration of agricultural land in few hands. • Economic recession teamed with Inflation • Disparity between rich and poor • Governmental Corruption • Diaz’s ineptitude in the presidential election of 1910. Francisco Madero
Eve of the Political Election • Peasant uprisings, workers strikes, Mexican Liberal Party- equality among the sexes, low wages, abusive working conditions • Dictator Porfirio Diaz welcomes change and said Mexico was ready for a democracy • Anti-Reelectionist Party: Francisco Madero (from Coahuila- cattle, wheat, vineyards, mines) took the challenge and looked to create an oligarchy • Early June Diaz had him arrested, he was later freed from jail and fled to Texas • Diaz and his VP Ramon Corral win the election
October 7- Plan of San Luis Potosi (Madero) • October 4th 1910 he escapes from prison • Called the election null and void • Provisional President- eventually hold free elections • Return of Peasants lands and political reforms • Called for an armed rebellion against Diaz on November 20th
Overthrow of Diaz • Madero returned to Mexico, found rebellion spreading. • Pascual Orozco led a mixed group of rebels in Chihuahua, who fought for their freedoms while the federal troops were ill-trained and reluctant to fight • Pancho Villa, a rebel general from Chihuahua, became the military hero of the Revolution using guerrilla warfare. • Madero saw him as the perfect military hero
Overthrow of Diaz • Emiliano Zapata led the Revolution in Morelos. • Small farmer villagers vs. owners of sugarcane plantations • 17 owners of Haciendas controlled 25% of the land • Captured Morelos in May of 1911; essential to defeating Diaz • Zapata became the hero of the Mexican peasant with his demands for land reform in his Plan of Ayala.
Overthrow of Diaz • Villa and Orozco capture CuidadJuárez • Gained access to U.S. arms dealers • In May 21st 1911, under the Treaty of Ciudad Juárez, Diaz went into exile but the same institutions exist- Francisco Leon de la Barra, Mexican ambassador to US, interim president
Research Assignment • How did your topic help to contribute to the Mexican Revolution? • Social Causes • Economic Causes • Political Causes • Role of the Porfiriato regime • Create a PowerPoint to share with class tomorrow
Mexico City’s Complot de Tacubaya • Protection of indigenous rights, agrarian reform, eight hour workday, equal pay for equal work, equal education • Unsuccessful but linked to Diaz departure • Madero makes two mistakes before the elections • Demobilized the revolutionary armies of the North • Leon de la Barra- still “Porfirismo without Porfirio”
Resolve? • A breach opened-up between the Zapatistas in the South and Madero and his followers from the North. • With the existing government, tensions were still present. Leon de la Barra continued to fight with Zapata. Zapata began taking large estates and distributing wealth to the villages • Although people began to question Madero’s ability to rule and control the tensions he was elected president in 1911
Mexico under Francisco Madero (1911-1913) • Madero was too idealistic to be a good president. • Conservative nature alienated many revolutionaries, especially Zapata and his followers. • Democracy to Madero- Masses had the illusion of power but the elite made all the major decisions • Economic and Social Democracy: He believed in unions and the ability to strike. Wanted to purchase land and provide it to the landless workers. However, he believed that haciendas were vital to modernization. • Violence and oppression still existed
Mexico Under Madero • Lost support of Industrial workers • Wages, hours, working conditions • Unions and the right to strike • Women and children protection • Lost Support of the Peasantry • Land reform • Conservatives • Missed the rule of Diaz
Zapata vs. Madero • Emiliano Zapata unhappy- Madero refuses to listen and orders Zapata to get rid of his troops • Madero sent the army into Morelos to destroy Zapata. Zapata could avoid destruction, but he was too weak to defeat the federal forces altogether • Turned to haciendados to fund campaign or burnt sugarcane • The Plan of Ayala- Zapatista Movement: Nov. 28 1911 • Return the land from the haciendas to the people • Mexico would be a land of small independent landowning farmers
Mexico under Madero • Madero’s failure to carry out land reform lost him the support of the revolutionary peasants • United States foreign policy turned against him after watching his inability to rule. US Ambassador Henry Lane Wilson was against the military operations in Mexico City because it threatened US life and property and if it wasn’t handled than US intervention was necessary
Conflict under Madero • In March 1912 Pascual Orozco with the assistance of the conservatives led a revolution against Madero. Orozco was looking for wealth and political power • Villa and Victoriano Huerta defeated Orozco. • Huerta was a cruel, authoritarian drunk at the age of 60 • Huerta became head of the army and Madero became totally dependent upon the army for his survival. • Madero did not like Huerta • At this time Huerta and Villa began to clash and Huerta arrested Villa • Was sentenced to death but saved on Christmas day of 1912 by a friendly army officer
Conflict under Madero • In February with coordination with the US ambassador Henry Lane Wilson, a right wing coup led a revolt on the palace • La decena tragica (ten tragic days) • Huerta arrested the president along with other top officials • US named him the head of the provisional government with Felix Diaz (Nephew to the old dictator) to succeed him once an election could be held • Madero was murdered Feb. 22 as he was being transported to the penitentiary (done by two armed men)
Huerta’s Dictatorship • Huerta seizure of power fell in favor of the landed aristocrats, the big capitalists, and the church, he was eager to restore the dictatorship similar to Diaz • Assassination of Madero not a positive for his image • Felix Diaz was sent to Japan on a “diplomatic mission” – out of the way • Revolutionary wave rose even higher after the Madero murder and the imposition of Huerta’s terrorist regime Victoriano Huerta
The Opposition to Huerta • Emiliano Zapata intensified his struggle against local landowners, Huerta’s allies, and federal troops. • This large focus of federal troops in the south allowed the Northern resistance to take shape
Venustiano Carranza • Venustiano Carranza, Governor of Coahuila, led the revolt against Huerta. • Called for the Plan of Guadalupe (March 26, 1913) • Called for the overthrow of the dictator and the restoration of constitutional government • Declared war to the death • Villa joined with Carranza and won many victories.
The opposition to Huerta • Pancho Villa- assumed leadership in the North (The Constitutionalists) made up of middle classes, miners, industrial workers, and peasants. • He soon recruited an army of 3,000 men. Took control of Chihuahua. • Started to attack hacienda; if they did not join him he took their land • Had to settle two scores: • Madero’s Murder • His firing squad sentence
Villa’s Plan • Executed all bandits that he could find and protected US property • America sells arms and ammunition • Regionalism vs. central government • Revolutionary new order of the state • Reduction of meat prices • distribution of money, clothing, and other goods to the poor • fifty new schools • anticlericalism • Robin Hood of Mexico?
Villa’s Plan (cont.) • Agrarian Program differed from that of Zapata, he felt it should stay under the control of the government until the victory of the revolution • The north was based around cattle raising which required large economic units that would work best under the control of the state. Cattle were sold to the US in return for ammunition.
Carranza and Villa • Fearful of Villa’s success and power in the north, Carranza promotes commander Alvaro Obregon • Brought up by Indians; successful in recruiting Apaches • Promised land for the Indians if they fought with Carranza
Intervention by the United States • Wilson’s government refused to recognize Huerta’s regime because it came to power illegally. However, he did allow an embargo on revolutionary arms purchases while permitting US arms sales to Huerta. • Wilson’s biggest fear was that Huerta had cut a deal with Britain and Germany to allow their intervention into Mexican markets.
Intervention by the US (cont.) • With the verge of World War I- foreign interest shifted towards the United States and led to a lack of cooperation with Huerta • US set a uniform rate on all goods shipped through the Panama Canal, which led to an end of British support in Mexico • Carranza’s agent in Washington said they would respect foreign property rights which led to the lifting of the embargo
Intervention by the us (cont) • US Sailors were arrested on the Dolphin, (restricted area in Tampico)but were immediately released with an apology. • Commander asked for a severe punishment for the arresting officers, a written apology and a 21 gun salute to the US flag. • Huerta had to refuse or would commit political suicide.
Intervention by the US (cont.) • April 21, 1914- Wilson sent fleet into Gulf of Mexico, learned of a German ship heading for Veracruz, he ordered for seizure of the city. Fighting took place till the 27th when the US occupied Veracruz. • 19 Americans vs. 200 Mexican casualties • Action led to a wave of anti-Yankee sentiment and Carranza denounced the US action
Intervention by the US (cont.) • Led to a Conference at Niagara Falls in May 1914 • Carranza was Wilsons choice to put into power but he was too nationalist and didn’t attend the conference but instead sent representatives with no real power • Wilson stops funding Villa and starts funding Carranza (against one another) • Wants a weak pro-American government • July 15, 1914- Huerta, recognizing the presence of Villa’s and Obregon’s army, flees to Europe • August 15th Obregon’s troops enter Mexico City
Carranza with Obregon • Carranza took the title first chief of the constitutional Army of 40,000 men • Villa joined under his command and his troops were renamed the Northern Division • Alvaro Obregon, who led the anti-Huerta forces in Sonora was named commander of the Army of the Northwest • Within Mexico City Huerta also faced opposition of the intellectuals and the feminist Loyalty club which protested the regimes brutality
Fighting Among the Victors • Carranza and Villa began to have two different views • Villa, “…implant a democratic regime… to secure the well-being of the workers; to emancipate the peasants economically, making an equitable distribution of lands or whatever else is needed to solve the agrarian problem” • Carranza agreed out of fear of losing Villa and his followers • Carranza and Zapata • Zapata kept to the plan of Ayala- wanted removal of old regime • Constitutional Convention at Mexico City • Only Obregon attends; gains support
Zapata’s and Villa’s Fight against Carranza: • The Constitutional Convention at Aguascalientes declared Carranza “in rebellion” because he refused to share power. • In November 10th, 1914 Villa and Zapata controlled Mexico City. A reign of terror ensued that greatly discredited both men. Obregón and Carranza formed an alliance against them. • Established a provisional government with the hope of the United States backing • Eulalio Gutierrez interim president • Could not unite the interests of the middle class, industrialists, and the peasants- No real plan set in place
Problems Confronting Zapata • Lacked resources to reach the deep south • Hacienda • Bandits committed the same actions as Zapatistas • Hurt his image • What to do with the Hacienda? • Who does he side with? • Conflict of ideology with Villa • Zapata focused on land ownership • Villa focused on a political revolt with power to regional centers
Zapata and Villa • Dec. 4th 1914- neither wanted the presidency and were certain of only wanting to control their respective provinces • Zapata believed in localism • Villa appeared lazy and lack of will power • President must be loyal to the revolution • Mistake: no president Villa and Zapata
Villa raids Mexico City • Reign of Terror- December 1914 • Targeted Zapatistas • 200 murders, thousands of rapes • Ordered the execution of intern president Eulalio Gutierrez • Issued a manifesto against Villa and Zapata • Sided with Carranza • Failure of Villa and Zapata to cooperate while Carranza and Obregon lead to their ultimate defeat
Back to Power • Carranza issued the “Adiciones” which addressed the plan for land reforms and a secret promise to the return of hacienda lands taken by the revolutionaries. He gained labor support by creating minimum wage and rights of workers. Women’s equality. • By July 1915 Obregón had defeated Villa, and in October the US recognized the Carranza government. • Obregon offered amnesty to Villistas • 40 generals, 5,046 officers, and 11,128 soldiers agreed
Back to Power (cont.) • Villa resorted to guerrilla warfare with 200 troops • Obregon used trench warfare that he studied from Europe to defeat Villa for the first time and eventually lead to his demise • United States extended a de facto recognition of his government but they wanted to have a say on important governmental matters- Carranza declared this unacceptable
Mexico under Carranza (1915-1919) • July of 1915 Zapata’s support dropped • Amnesties from Carranza • April 1919- Military General Pablo Gonzalez had a conflict with a Calvary commander (Jesus Guajardo) • Zapata tried to smuggle a note to Guajardo that was intercepted by Gonzalez • Guajardo had to kill 50 ex-Zapatista Soldiers • Earned his trust and was eventually shot
Mexico under Carranza • In March 1916 Villa attacked Columbus, New Mexico • 17 American casualties • Worked with Vera Cruz • President Wilson sent the army under General John Pershing into Mexico to catch him. • Sent 7,000 Men and 8 planes Pershing, Villa, and Obregón
The Chase for villa • Wilson sends John Pershing to pursue Villa in Mexico with $50,000 on his head • US expected Carranza to support this but instead he demands they withdraw and began to prepare for war • Villa was viewed as the national hero • Late 1916 Villa began raiding Chihuahua • Middle class objected forced loans • Peasantry objected forced military service • Early 1917, Villa kills wife of Carrancista paymaster • Troops kill 90 women in Torreon • Troops also rape women
Zimmerman Note • January 16th, 1917 • Participation for land lost in Mexican-American War (Gadsden) • Carranza issued a General in charge of evaluating the risks • Certain war with the US • Germany would not be able to supply a feasible amount of arms • The territory had a large English speaking population • Fear of other Latin American Countries
Mexico under Carranza (1915-1919) (cont.) • War almost broke out between Mexico and the US. Because neither side wanted war and the US wanted to focus on Europe, war was avoided and US troops left Mexico in February 1917. • Mexican Nationalist Victory • The Constitution of 1917 increased Carranza’s power and gave the Mexican government the power to take private property. The Catholic Church was restricted. Obregón