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Chapter 8: Reforming American Society

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  1. Chapter 8: Reforming American Society Religion Sparks reform

  2. Question of the Day • Based on your guided reading assignment from Chapter 8-1, who do you believe is the most important reformer in the section? Why are the accomplishments of this individual important?

  3. Agenda: March 12 • Period F: • Question of the Day • Homework: People and Ideas: Charles Finney, Dorothea Dix and 8-2 Guided Reading • Go over Chapter 8-1 Guided Reading • Answers on Board • PPT Notes Chapter 8-1 • Period A/B: • Question of the Day • Homework: Chapter 8-2 Guided Reading • Go over Chapter 8-1 packet. • Chapter 8-1 PPT notes • Period C: • Chapter 7 Test. • Homework: Chapter 8-1 Packet

  4. People and Ideas: Charles Finney • How did Finney’s Views on Salvation differ from those of other ministers? How might this have contributed to his desire for reform? • Unlike other ministers, Finney believed that it was the responsibility of the people to repent and act. The old Calvinist belief stated that the “spirit” would come to you. Disagreed with predestination. • In what ways did Finney reach out to the community? How did he expand the role of women in the Church? • Finney worked as the president of Oberlin College which was the first college to accept blacks and women. He also encouraged women and men to go to church together and discuss religion together. Other preachers of the time considered these meetings as “promiscuous” He also encouraged social reform and promoted abolitionism

  5. People and Ideas: Charles Finney • According to Finney, what moral obligations did women and men have? How did his actions as the president of Oberlin College reflect his desire to put his plans into action? • Men and women have the obligation to actively reform society. His role at Oberlin College backed up his views by accepting Blacks and women. • Explain why Finney became such a controversial figure in the Presbyterian Church. • His views that sinning is voluntary is a departure of Presbyterian beliefs. His preaching of revivals and social actions went against the old belief.

  6. Primary Source: Dorothea Dix • According to Dix’s Report, How were the mentally ill forced to live? • The mentally ill were forced to live in filthy jail cells, cages, and stalls where they were chained or confined without being let outside. • Why do you think Dix took her findings to the MA legislature? • She believed it was the legislators’ moral obligation to protect the mentally ill and hoped to convince them to take action to provide adequate and humane provisions for their case. • Do you think the examples of abuse drawn from Dix’s Notebook and journal strengthened or weakened the case? Explain • The examples strengthened her case because they graphically and persuasively demonstrated the need for reform

  7. AGE OF REFORM • 1. Ante-Bellum—1820 to 1860 • Romantic age • Reformers pointed out the inequality in society • Industrialization vs. progress in human rights • Primarily a Northern movement • Southerners refused reforms to protect slavery • Educated society through • newspaper and lectures • Areas to reform: • Slavery women’s rights • Industrialization public school • Male domination temperance (alcohol) • War prison reform

  8. 2. 2nd Great Awakening---1820’s to 1840’s • religious revival vs. deists • Rise of Unitarians---believed in a God of love • Denied the trinity • heaven through good works and helping others • social conscience = social gospel • apply Christ’s teachings to bettering society • Contrasted with salvation by grace and getting to heaven through Christ • Baptists, Methodists, etc. • 3. Formed utopian societies = collective ownership

  9. The Second Great Awakening “Spiritual Reform From Within”[Religious Revivalism] Social Reforms & Redefining the Ideal of Equality Education Temperance Abolitionism Asylum &Penal Reform Women’s Rights

  10. Charles Finney • Charles Finney conducted his own revivals in the mid 1820s and early 1830s • He rejected the Calvinist doctrine of predestination • adopted ideas of free will and salvation to all • Really popularized the new form of revival

  11. Charles Finney and the Conversion Experience • New form of revival • Meeting night after night to build excitement • Speaking bluntly • Praying for sinners by name • Encouraging women to testify in public • Placing those struggling with conversion on the “anxious bench” at the front of the church

  12. 2.Transcendentalism (European Romanticism) • Liberation from understanding and the cultivation of reasoning.” • “Transcend” the limits of intellect and allow the emotions, the SOUL, to create an original relationship with the Universe.

  13. Transcendentalist Thinking • Man must acknowledge a body of moral truths that were intuitive and must TRANSCEND more sensational proof: • The infinite benevolence of God. • The infinite benevolence of nature. • The divinity of man.

  14. The Transcendentalist Agenda • Give freedom to the slave. • Give well-being to the poor and the miserable. • Give learning to the ignorant. • Give health to the sick. • Give peace and justice to society.

  15. The Rise of African American Churches • Revivalism also spread to the African American community • The Second Great Awakening has been called the "central and defining event in the development of Afro-Christianity“ • During these revivals Baptists and Methodists converted large numbers of blacks

  16. The Rise of African American Churches • This led to the formation of all-black Methodist and Baptist churches, primarily in the North • African Methodist Episcopal (A. M. E.) had over 17,000 members by 1846 • Beginning in 1830, Began holding Conferences of freed African Americans in the North

  17. Educational Reform • In 1800 Massachusetts was the only state requiring free public schools supported by community funds • Middle-class reformers called for tax-supported education, arguing to business leaders that the new economic order needed educated workers

  18. Horace Mann(1796-1859) “Father of American Education” • children were clay in the hands of teachers and school officials • children should be “molded” into a state of perfection • established state teacher- training programs R3-6

  19. Educational Reform • Under Horace Mann’s leadership in the 1830s, Massachusetts created a state board of education and adopted a minimum-length school year. • Provided for training of teachers, and expanded the curriculum to include subjects such as history and geography

  20. Educational Reform • By the 1850s the number of schools, attendance figures, and school budgets had all increased sharply • School reformers enjoyed their greatest success in the Northeast and the least in the South • Southern planters opposed paying taxes to educate poorer white children • Educational opportunities for women also expanded • In 1833 Oberlin College in Ohio became the first coeducational college. • Four years later the first all-female college was founded — Mount Holyoke, Massachusetts

  21. The Asylum Movement • Dorothea Dix, a Boston schoolteacher, took the lead in advocating state supported asylums for the mentally ill • She attracted much attention to the movement by her report detailing the horrors to which the mentally ill were subjected • being chained, kept in cages and closets, and beaten with rods • In response to her efforts, 28 states maintained mental institutions by 1860

  22. Asylums and Prison Reform • Dorothea Dix also discovered that people were placed in prisons for debt, people were subjected to cruel punishment and children were not treated any different than adults • She is responsible for helping eliminate sentencing for debt, ending cruel punishment and getting states to establish juvenile court systems • She argues that people can change if they are placed in proper environments and given an education

  23. Chapter 8: Reforming American Society Religion Sparks reform

  24. AGE OF REFORM • 1. Ante-Bellum—1820 to 1860 • Romantic age • _____________________________________ • Industrialization vs. progress in human rights • Primarily a Northern movement • _____________________________________________________________________ • Educated society through • newspaper and lyceum meetings • Areas to reform: • ___________________________ • ____________________________ • _____________ _______________ • _____________ _______________

  25. 2. 2nd Great Awakening---1820’s to 1840’s • religious revival vs. deists • Rise of Unitarians---believed in a God of love • ____________________________ • heaven through ____________________________ • social conscience = social gospel • apply Christ’s _______________________________ • Contrasted with salvation by ____________ ____________________________________ • Baptists, Methodists, etc. • 3. Formed utopian societies = _____________________

  26. The Second Great Awakening “Spiritual Reform From Within”[Religious Revivalism] Social Reforms & Redefining the Ideal of Equality ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________

  27. Charles Finney • Charles Finney conducted his own revivals in the mid 1820s and early 1830s • He rejected the ______ doctrine of __________ • adopted ideas of free will and salvation to all • ______________________________________

  28. Charles Finney and the Conversion Experience • New form of revival • Meeting _________________________ ________________________________ • Speaking bluntly • ______________________________ • ______________________________ • Placing those struggling with conversion on the “anxious bench” at the front of the church

  29. 2.Transcendentalism (European Romanticism) • Liberation from understanding and the cultivation of reasoning.” • “________________________________________________________________________________________________________

  30. Transcendentalist Thinking • Man must acknowledge a body of moral truths that were intuitive and must TRANSCEND more sensational proof: • ___________________________. • ___________________________. • ___________________________.

  31. The Transcendentalist Agenda • Give _______________________. • Give ____________________________ • Give _______________________. • Give _______________________. • Give peace and justice to society.

  32. The Rise of African American Churches • Revivalism also spread to the ____________________________ • The Second Great Awakening has been called the “______________________________________“ • ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

  33. The Rise of African American Churches • This led to the formation of all-black ____________________________________________________________ • African Methodist Episcopal (A. M. E.) had over _____________________ • Beginning in 1830, Began holding Conferences of ____________________________________________________________

  34. Educational Reform • In 1800 Massachusetts was the only state requiring free public schools supported by community funds • Middle-class reformers called for ____________________________________________________________educated workers

  35. Horace Mann(1796-1859) “Father of American Education” • children were clay in the hands of teachers and school officials • children should be ________ ___________________________ • established state __________________________ R3-6

  36. Educational Reform • By the 1850s the number of schools, attendance figures, and school budgets had all increased sharply • School reformers enjoyed their greatest ______________________________________________________________________________________ • Southern planters opposed paying taxes to educate poorer white children • Educational opportunities for women also expanded • In 1833 Oberlin College in Ohio became the first coeducational college. • _________________________________________________________________________________

  37. The Asylum Movement • Dorothea Dix, a Boston schoolteacher, took the lead in advocating ______________________________ _________________________________________ • She attracted much attention to the movement by her report detailing the horrors to which the mentally ill were subjected • ____________________________________________________________________________________________ • In response to her efforts, __________________________________________________________________________________

  38. Asylums and Prison Reform • Dorothea Dix also discovered that people were placed in __________, people were subjected to cruel punishment and ___________________________________________________ • She is responsible for helping eliminate sentencing for debt, ending cruel punishment and getting states to establish juvenile court systems • She argues that people can change if they are placed in proper environments and given an education