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DNA
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DNA

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  1. DNA • Three billion base pairs in DNA • 99.5% similarity among individuals • Genome = total DNA in the cell • 5% of genome is encoded = serves as plans for protein synthesis • 95% is non-encoded = JUNK ! Maybe…

  2. Going to a certain Location (called a Locus) in your DNA… We find: Short Tandem Repeats (STRs) 3-7 bp long, repeating throughout a specific stretch of DNA at a particular location AGTT AGTT AGTT AGTT AGTT AGTT

  3. Technique of DNA Typing Chain Reaction (PCR) and Short Tandem Repeats (STRs)

  4. Please draw this!!

  5. Intertwined strands of DNA representing segments of two chromosomes Chromosome segment on the left contains three repeating sequences of T–A–G Chromosome segment on right has two repeating sequences of T–A–G

  6.  Variants of STR TH01 Top DNA strand has six repeats of the STR A–A–T–G Bottom DNA strand shows eight repeats This person’s profile would read: TH01 ____ , ______

  7. http://wps.prenhall.com/wps/media/objects/3801/3892550/DNACD_mod02-1-12.swfhttp://wps.prenhall.com/wps/media/objects/3801/3892550/DNACD_mod02-1-12.swf

  8. Process of DNA Typing • DNA Extraction • Restriction Enzymes ------------> • PCR – copy / amplify -- Like your body does REPLICATION • Count the STRs at 13 locations in JUNK • Evaluation - Electropherogram

  9. Genetic Analyzer • Alleles represented as peaks • Electropherogram: Graph representing STRs

  10. Electropherogram

  11. x 0.222 x 2 Statistical estimates: the product rule 0.222 = 0.1 www.bioforensics.com

  12. x x 1 in 111 1 in 20 1 in 22,200 x x 1 in 100 1 in 14 1 in 81 1 in 113,400 x x 1 in 116 1 in 17 1 in 16 1 in 31,552 Statistical estimates: the product rule 1 in 10 = 0.1 1 in 79,531,528,960,000,000 www.bioforensics.com 1 in 80 quadrillion

  13. Process of DNA Typing http://wps.prenhall.com/wps/media/objects/3801/3892550/DNACD_mod04-2-11.2.swf

  14. Human Identity Testing using STRs DNA Size (base pairs) D3 TH01 amelogenin D8 VWA D16 D19 D21 D18 D2 FGA probability of a random match: ~1 in 3 trillion Two different individuals Results obtained in less than 5 hours with a spot of blood the size of a pinhead D3 amelogenin D19 D8 D16 VWA D21 D18 D2 FGA TH01 Simultaneous Analysis of 10 STRs and Gender ID

  15. http://wps.prenhall.com/wps/media/objects/3801/3892550/DNACD_mod04-2-11.2.swfhttp://wps.prenhall.com/wps/media/objects/3801/3892550/DNACD_mod04-2-11.2.swf

  16. Who’s your Daddy?Paternity testing • ABO blood typing-exclude paternity, but cannot confirm paternity • DNA testing can confirm paternity

  17. STR Profiling Sensitivity • STR Profiling-can detect 125 picograms • 1 picogram = one-trillionth of a gram • One cell has 7 picograms of DNA • 18 DNA bearing cells are needed to get a STR profile