Unit 7: TheCivil War April 1861 To April 1865
North vs. South in 1861 Use your notes from the last unit and the textbook pages; (GN 448-452), (CP 413-415)
The Leaders of the Confederacy Pres. Jefferson Davis VP Alexander Stevens
The Confederate Seal MOTTO “With God As Our Vindicator”
The Leaders of the Union Vice President Hannibal Hamlin (1861-65) Vice President Andrew Johnson (1865) President Abraham Lincoln
Bell Ringer:What social conditions existed between the North and the South, which would cause a war?
I. The Beginning- April 1861 • Fort Sumter, SC – Union fort, commanded by • Major Robert Anderson, U.S.A.
B. C.S.A. Gen. Beauregard demands that they leave. C. Lincoln sends supplies to the fort 1. Confederates attack • Fort Sumter surrenders after 34 hours of • shelling 1. No casualties, but the war has begun E. The North will not let the Southern states secede • Four more southern states secede (VA, • NC, AR, TN)
Strategy:1) If you were the North where would you attack and what would you do to win? 2) If you were the South where would you attack and what would you do to win?
Anaconda Plan: Blockade Southern ports and • the Mississippi River 1. No supplies or goods get by B. Split the South into 2 parts 1. Divide the army and supplies up C. Capture Richmond, VA D. Bring the South Back into the Union ASAP
E. Lincoln’s Generals Winfield Scott Joseph Hooker Ulysses S. Grant Irwin McDowell George McClellan George Meade Ambrose Burnside George McClellan,Again!
A. Defensive War Plan: Defend the South 1. Only fight when need to 2. Cause as much damage as possible 3. Make the North want to quit B. Capture Washington, D.C. C. Gain European support and recognition
D. The Confederate Generals “Stonewall” Jackson Nathan Bedford Forrest George Pickett Jeb Stuart James Longstreet Robert E. Lee
A. First Major Battle 1. 20 miles from Washington 2. Near Bull Run Creek B. Both sides think the war will only be this battle • Both sides fight well, but C.S.A. rallies & U.S.A. • retreats • Results – both sides learn that the war will be • long and bloody
A. Ulysses S. Grant makes a name for himself 1. Fort Henry, TN: February 1862 a. Navy attacked from the River while the army moved into position.
2. Fort Donelson, TN: February 1862 a. Naval attack, but forced to retreat b. Confederate try to escape, driven back c. “Unconditional Surrender” Grant wins
3. Shiloh, TN: April 1862 a. Gens. Johnston and Beauregard attack Grant to stop his advance b. Johnston is killed c. Union reinforcements turn the battle
B. Results of the War in the West 1. Union took control much of the Mississippi River 2. Confederates fight hard, and slow the Union advance
A. The Battle of the Ironclads,March, 1862 The Monitor vs.the Merrimac
On board the Monitor 1. Marked a change in naval warfare
B. Peninsula Campaign – Virginia: March – July 1. Union Gen. McClellan is SLOW to act a. has 110,000 men b. waits in place for one month 2. Confederates - led by Robert E. Lee and Stonewall Jackson a. much smaller force b. make the Union retreat after a series of battles
C. Second Manassas: August, 1862 1. Union heads north to D.C. by sea 2. Rebels follow by land • Confederates defeat Union General • Pope
D. Antietam; Sharpsburg, MD: Sept. 17, 1862 1. Lee decided to invade the North 2. McClellan back in charge: follows slowly 3. Armies meet MD along the Antietam Creek 4. Single bloodiest day of war – 23,000 casualties 5. Confederates retreat 6. McClellan does not pursue and Lincoln fires him again
E. Fredericksburg, VA: December, 1862 1. New Union commander – Ambrose E. Burnside 2. Confederates outnumbered, but dug defenses and won
The Emancipation Proclamation: • January 1, 1863
With a partner, compare your answers to the Emancipation Proclamation.What did the North, South, and Slaves think about it?What are the benefits and drawbacks to it?
1. Frees those slaves living in the southern states 2. Lincoln CANNOT enforce this law, but now the war is being fought to save the Union AND end slavery
VII. A Critical Year: 1863 A. Chancellorsville, VA: May, 1863 1. New Union commander – Joseph Hooker: very cautious commander 2. Considered Lee’s greatest victory a. innovative strategy: Split his army even though he was outnumbered 3. Stonewall Jackson accidentally shot by his own men – dies