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The Civil War

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  1. The Civil War AP US – Unit 7 With graphics from Ms. Susan Pojer

  2. Understanding the Beginning of the War through Visuals

  3. North vs. South in 1861

  4. Rating the North & the South

  5. Resources: North & the South

  6. Railroad Lines, 1860

  7. Slave/Free States Population, 1861

  8. The Union & Confederacy in 1861

  9. Immigrantsas a %of a State’sPopulationin1860

  10. Men Present for Duty in the Civil War

  11. Ohio Military Service

  12. Soldiers’ Occupations: North/South Combined

  13. The Civil War Begins

  14. Fort Sumter: April 12, 1861

  15. Confederate Conscription Act – April 1862 • The first draft in American history • All able bodied white men from 17-50 were required to serve for 3 years (originally from 18-35) • Exemptions for certain occupations and the 20-Negro Law • “Rich man’s war, but a poor man’s fight” • You could also hire a substitute, but that ended in 1863 • Only 1 in 5 in the Confederate army was actually a draftee

  16. Supplying the Confederate Army • Purchased weapons from Europe for the first few years • By 1862, Confederacy had ordnance contracts with Southern factories and gave loans to start others • Most supply problems centered around clothing, shoes, and food • Caused the Impressment Act (1863) – Army officers could take food from farmers for prescribed prices. Could also take slaves • What problems with supplies does Doc 2 talk about? What type of war did this lack of supplies create in the South?

  17. The Union Enrollment Act – March 1863 • Made every able bodied, white male from 20-45 eligible for war • Had a loophole to either pay the government $300 or to hire a substitute • Exemptions were for high government officials, ministers, and men who were the sole support of widows, orphans, or indigent parents • Bounties were offered for volunteers • This led to many “bounty jumpers” • 8% of the Union army were draftees or substitutes

  18. Financing the War • Both sides issued bonds, but required them to be paid in specie • The South’s first bond took almost all of the specie • Northerners preferred to keep their specie • Began to print paper money • Union: The Legal Tender Act (1862) authorized the printing of $150 million greenbacks • Confederacy: never made their paper money legal tender • Caused the value of the paper money to plunge because of lack of consumer confidence • South responded by printing more (= more inflation)

  19. Outcomes of Financing the War • The South was broke from the hard currency system as well as the minimal government interference in the economy • North passed a system of national banking (without those pesky southern Democrats) • The National Bank Act (1863) established the criteria by which a bank could obtain a federal charter and issue national bank notes

  20. The Leaders of the Confederacy Pres. Jefferson Davis VP Alexander Stevens • Had strong differences: • Davis wanted to liberate the South from the North • Stevens wanted a guarantee for protection of states’ rights

  21. The Confederate “White House”

  22. The Confederate Seal MOTTO  “With God As Our Vindicator”

  23. A Northern View of Jeff Davis

  24. Politics in the North • Republicans fragmented against Lincoln • Caused the Democrats to win 5 states in 1862 • Republicans then solidified behind their president

  25. Securing the Union’s Borders • Lincoln focused on keeping the border states within the Union even though they were slave states • Armed pro-Unionists in Kentucky and defended the state against a Confederate invasion in 1862 • Missouri and Delaware also never left though MO had many who fought for the South • West Virginia separated from Virginia in 1861 and officially joined the union in 1863

  26. Holding onto Maryland • Suspended the writ of habeas corpus in MD so federal troops could arrest and hold pro-secession Marylanders – kept MD in the Union • Led to the case Ex parte Merryman (1861) in which Chief Justice Taney ruled that Lincoln had exceeded his authority by suspending the writ of habeas corpus • Lincoln argued that the writ could be suspended in “cases of rebellion” and it was his job to determine if rebellion was happening. He ignored Taney’s ruling

  27. The Union & Confederacy in 1861

  28. Advantages and Disadvantages (Add to chart from before) • Union had more men, supplies, and infrastructure, but would have to sustain huge supply lines to attack the south. The Union could also not use all of its men since many were required work. • South had fewer white men, but a higher percentage could fight since the slaves worked. Also had the home court advantage and a fight for independence.

  29. Weapon Development That Helps in the Future • Submarine • Repeating Rifle • Gattling Gun USS Alligator (1862) developed with the help of the French

  30. The Rifle and Minie Ball • The rifling musket or rifle was used extensively by both sides in the Civil War • Fired further, faster, and more accurately than a regular musket • Used a slightly pointed lead slug called the Minie ball • Huge advancement in weapon technology + almost no advancement in military tactics = much death

  31. Civil WarStrategy • Succession of battles • Victors were the ones who kept the field, not always the ones with the fewer casualties • Was difficult to pursue defeated troops because of supply line problems and vast quantities of injured

  32. The Union’s “Anaconda” Plan • Blockade southern ports and strike down the Mississippi River • Devised by General Winfield Scott • In reality the blockade happened and the Mississippi took some time

  33. Day 2

  34. Lincoln’s Generals Winfield Scott Joseph Hooker Ulysses S. Grant Irwin McDowell George McClellan George Meade Ambrose Burnside George McClellan,Again!

  35. McClellan: I Can Do It All!

  36. The Confederate Generals “Stonewall” Jackson Nathan Bedford Forrest George Pickett Jeb Stuart James Longstreet Robert E. Lee

  37. Battle of Bull Run (1st Manassas)July, 1861 • Union had to get rid of CSA troops at Manassas before moving on to Richmond • Politicians from Washington DC went to watch the battle and picnic… • CSA reinforcements arrived by train and routed the Union army • Confederate Victory

  38. Results of Bull Run • Lincoln replaced McDowell General George B. McClellan who put in place The Peninsula Campaign • 1862 - McClellan’s hesitation prevented him from attacking Richmond early and by the time he attacked he was not able to reach the city though he did defeat the Confederates. • Lincoln ordered McClellan back to DC after the Seven Days Battle

  39. War in the East: 1861- 1862

  40. Battle of Antietam “Bloodiest Single Day of the War” September 17, 1862 23,000 casualties

  41. Ken Burns: The Civil War Episode 3 Chapter 8: Antietam 10 min if ltd time

  42. The Western Campaign • Surprise Union victory at Shiloh led to control of the upper Mississippi • By abandoning the southern Mississippi to attack Shiloh, the Confederacy left New Orleans open to attack by Farragut and Butler • Once the Union controlled the West, bands of pro-Union troops began to attack Native Americans to gain control of land

  43. The Naval War • Union began war with 40 warships while the Confederacy had 0 • South had a 90% success rate with blockade runners at first. This was dropped to a 50% success rate by 1865 as the Union gathered non-military vessels to secure southern ports • Even with their few ironclads, the Union was clearly the victor on the seas

  44. The Battle of the Ironclads,March, 1862 USS Monitor vs. the CSA Virginia (formerly Merrimack)

  45. Diplomatic Issues in War • The South expected both France and England to recognize the Confederacy and help them break the Union blockade • Never happened: • England was not as reliant on southern cotton as once thought • Both were wary to join the war • Lincoln’s issuance of the Emancipation Proclamation turned this into a fight against slavery

  46. TheEmancipationProclamation

  47. The Emancipation Proclamation • Preliminarily issued after the battle of Antietam in September 1862 • Final version issued on January 1, 1863 to immediately take effect: • Freed slaves in areas under rebellion where Union had no authority (didn’t apply to slave states in the Union or areas the Union had already conquered) • Really had no effect on slavery until the Union army came near. And then…

  48. Emancipation in 1863

  49. African-American Recruiting Poster

  50. The Famous 54th Massachusetts