The American Civil War From 1861, to 1865, for four long years Americans fought and killed one another
The Civil War • Who was involved? #1 The Confederate States of America
The Civil War • Who was involved? #2 The Union (Free States & Territories)
The Civil War • Who was involved? #3 The Border States
The Civil War Why were the Border States so important? “I hope to have God on my side but I have to have Kentucky” -- Abraham Lincoln • Important geographically Why were the Border States so unusual? • Slave states that stayed with the Union
Northern Advantages: • The North had a larger population than the South: North: 21.5 million South: 9 million • The North had more miles of railroads than the South: North: 21,700 miles South: 9000 miles • The North had more factories than the South: North: 110,100 South: 20,600
Anaconda Plan • Anaconda Plan • 3 part plan to attempt to choke the CSA to death • Naval blockage of Southern ports • Capture the Mississippi and split the Confederacy in half • Capture the Confederate capital of Richmond, VA
Anaconda Plan Winfield Scott General-In-Chief
Southern Advantages: • Leadership: • Most of the countries military colleges were in the south • Most officers sided with the south • South had a military tradition. • Military Tactics: • The South had to only repel the North’s attacks • Did not have to attack or conquer the North. • South knew the terrain • Morale: • Southerners were fighting for their way of life • Fighting to protect their homes from Northern aggression.
3 Theatres • Eastern (Virginia) • Western (Mississippi River) • Southern
Abraham Lincoln “A House divided against itself cannot stand” – -- A. Lincoln Little political experience (served 1 term in the House of Representatives) Strong reputation for honesty, temperance, jokes and storytelling
Northern Commanders George G. Meade Joseph Hooker Irwin McDowell George McClellan A. E. Burnside
Northern Commanders Ulysses S. Grant “When in doubt, fight” - ---U.S. Grant Son of an Ohio tailor & drunken failure until the Civil War Reputation for boldness, resourcefulness, & persistence
Jefferson Davis “All we ask is to be left alone” -- J. Davis West Point graduate, Colonel in Mexican-American war, Secretary of war, & Senator from Mississippi Not a popular president, especially with big fans of state’s rights
Southern Commander Robert E. Lee “It is a good thing war is so terrible; else we should grow too fond of it” -- R.E. Lee Brilliant southern gentleman from one of country’s oldest families Offered command of Union armies Family plantation occupied early in the war and turned into Arlington National Cemetery
So how did it begin? Fort Sumter Fort Sumter lies in the harbor of Charleston, S.C.
Civil War Battles • Fort Sumter, SC – Feb 4, 1861 • 1st battle of the Civil War • Union fort taken control of the Confederacy • Following battle VA, AR, NC, TN seceded • Slave states of MD, DE, KY, and MO remain in the Union
The Confederate States of America • South Carolina • Mississippi • Florida • Louisiana • Alabama • Georgia • Texas Jefferson Davis
Secession: • In response to Lincoln’s victory, the southern states seceded from the Union in 1861, forming the Confederate States of America. Original Confederate flag Confederate flag will change
July 21, 1861 CSA led by General Stonewall Jackson Never lost a battle USA led by General Irvin McDowell Loses command after battle to General George McClellan Both sides were not prepared for war. Both sides had very inexperienced troops. Southern Victory Importance: Both sides and spectators realized that the war was not going to be over in a few months CSA realized they could win First Battle of Bull Run, VA(1st Manassas)
Feb, 1862 USA led by Gen. Ulysses S Grant against CSA Gen. Tilghman and Gen. Johnston Importance- Grant captures strategic forts on Tennessee and Cumberland Rivers opening avenue’s to attack the South Grant calls for unconditional surrender Fort Henry and Fort Donelson, TN
Writ of Habeas Corpus With Congress not in session until July, Lincoln assumed all powers not delegated in the Constitution, including the power to suspend habeas corpus. • Writ of Habeas Corpus is suspended in respect to all persons arrested, or who are now, or hereafter during the rebellion shall be, imprisoned in any fort, camp, arsenal, military prison, or other place of confinement by any military authority of by the sentence of any Court Martial or Military Commission. • On Feb. 14, 1862, the Lincoln administration ended the suspension of the writ of habeas corpus and issued an amnesty to political or state prisoners no longer deemed dangerous. • Finally, in 1866, after the war, the Supreme Court officially restored habeas corpus.
Writ of Habeas Corpus The act of holding prisoners without bringing them before a judge Violation of a person’s rights Can lead to false imprisonment
Battle of Shiloh, TN • Mar – April 1862 • USA led by Grant • CSA led by A.S. Johnston • One of the bloodiest battles in the war. • More than 100,000 killed, wounded, or captured; or 1/4 of all those who fought • Day one was won by the CSA on surprise attack, day two was one by the USA. • Importance: • Typical of the war, North would win with reinforcements and greater numbers. • Showed importance of sending scouts, digging trenches, and building fortifications
2nd Battle of Bull Run, VA(2nd Manassas) • Aug 29-30, 1862 • Union led by Gen. John Pope • CSA led by Robert E. Lee, “Stonewall” Jackson and James Longstreet Importance: Decisivevictory for the South Builds momentum for the South
Battle of Antietam, MD (Sharpsburg) • September 17, 1862 • Single bloodiest day of the war – 26K killed • A Union soldier found Lee’s battle plan used as wrapper for three cigars • Lee attacks into the north • Lee splits his army and is overrun • McClellan fails to follow Lee and finish off his army • Battle was a draw • Importance: • McClellan is fired by Lincoln • Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation after this battle.
Emancipation Proclamation • July 1, 1863 • Lincoln passes the edict through Congress freeing the slaves in area in rebellion against the Union • Practically a useless document, because the CSA had denounced Lincoln’s authority in the South • Symbolically it is VERY important • Changes the purpose of the war to ending slavery
Emancipation Proclamation It freed the slaves only in states that have seceded from the Union. It did not free slaves in border states.
Fredericksburg, VA • Dec 13, 1862 • Bloody victory for CSA General Lee over USA General Ambrose Burnside • Burnside replaced in command by Joseph Hooker because of the failure to win.
Chancellorsville, VA • May 1-4, 1863 • Another Southern victory • JEB Steward commander of the CSA Calvary forces is the hero • Stonewall Jackson shot by friendly fire and dies 8 days later • Huge moral blow to CSA
Change of Strategy • After Chancellorsville, Lee decides to go on the offensive to relieve pressure • Lee once again attempts to take the North by moving his troops into Union territory
The Battle of Atlanta or The March to the Sea • Union General Sherman led army south from Tennessee into Georgia • Pushed to Atlanta, the railroad center of the South • Much of Georgia Burned to the ground • Goal was to destroy everything that could help the South in the war • Burned homes, stores, crops, animals, bridges, railroad tracks….everything! • Savannah fell to the Union on Dec. 22, 1864
Sherman’s March • Major General William Tecumseh Sherman • On November 12, 1864, Sherman marched out of Atlanta toward the Atlantic coast. • Tracing a line of march between Macon and Augusta, he carved a sixty-mile wide swath of destruction in the Confederacy's heartland.