The Civil War (1861-1865). North vs. South in 1861. Rating the North & the South. Slave/Free States Population, 1861. Railroad Lines, 1860. Resources: North vs. South. The Union & Confederacy in 1861. Men Present for Duty in the Civil War. Ohio Military Service.
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V.P Hannibal Hamlin 1861-1865
Pres. Jefferson Davis
VP Alexander Stevens
Older brothers fought in the War of 1812 – decorated by Andrew Jackson
Educated at West Point
Served in the Blackhawk Wars
Elected to the House of Representatives
Rejoined the Army to fight in Mexican War - Rose to the rank of Colonel – decorated for bravery
Served in the US Senate
Appointed as Secretary of War by Franklin Pierce
Re-elected to the Senate
Resigned when Mississippi seceded
Confederate Capital established in Richmond
Richmond Became the Union Army’s Primary Objective
MOTTO “With God As Our Vindicator”
Ulysses S. Grant
Nathan Bedford Forrest
Robert E. Lee
The Hero of Bull Run: Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson
Union Casualties: 15,849
Confederate Casualties: 20,135
The Monitor vs.the Merrimac
September 17, 1862
Jan. 1, 1863
Another disaster for the Union: 12,000 casualties
A new strategy:
War of Attrition:
Bleed the South
Never fall back or regroup
Use the North’s resources of troops and supplies.
The fall of Atlanta assures Lincoln’s re-election.
Pres. Lincoln (R)
George McClellan (D)
The Capture of Savannah, GA
His army burns Columbia, South Carolina
Grant now had 120,000+ men in his army.
Lee was down to fewer than 25,000
Army of the Potomac Presents Arms
in Salute to an Honored Enemy
Each side took thousands of prisoners during the four years of the war.
At first, prisoners were exchanged – but exchanged prisoners often rejoined the ranks.
The Union stopped exchanging in order to deprive the South of this manpower.
As a result, the number of prisoners that had to be kept in the camps increased – far beyond the capacity of either side to house them.
One small stream served as water supply and sewer.
Prisoners lived in unheated tents. Food was scarce, if available at all
35,000 Union prisoners of war died. The commandant was convicted of war crimes after the war – and executed.
Another view of Andersonville
Not Much Better
In the Union prison in Elmira NY, confederate prisoners lived in tents, without heat, even during the upstate NY winters. Death from freezing and disease was common.
John Wilkes Booth
“With malice toward none, with charity for all, with firmness in the right as God gives us to see the right, let us strive on to finish the work we are in, to bind up the nation's wounds, to care for him who shall have borne the battle and for his widow and his orphan, to do all which may achieve and cherish a just and lasting peace among ourselves and with all nations.”
Abraham Lincoln – March 4, 1865
Two-thirds of the South’s shipping had been destroyed
9,000 miles of Railroad were destroyed
Property values in the south were down by 70%
Thousands of acres of cotton fields had been burned
In terms of manpower, the South lost 260,000 men killed
One out of every five white southern males had been killed
Hundreds of thousands had been wounded – many were permanently disabled.
In 1866, 20% of the Mississippi budget was spent on artificial limbs
Four Issues of Reconstruction:
How should the Southern states re-enter the Union?
Should the South, especially the former Rebels, be punished? If so, how badly?
What to do with the 4,000,000 newly freed slaves ?
Which branch of government has the authority to make these decisions – the Executive or the Legislative?