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The Civil War (1861-1865). North vs. South in 1861. Rating the North & the South. Slave/Free States Population, 1861. Railroad Lines, 1860. Resources: North vs. South. The Union & Confederacy in 1861. Men Present for Duty in the Civil War. Ohio Military Service.

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leaders of the union
Leaders of the Union

V.P Hannibal Hamlin 1861-1865


The Leaders of the Confederacy

Pres. Jefferson Davis

VP Alexander Stevens


Father was an officer in the Continental Army

Older brothers fought in the War of 1812 – decorated by Andrew Jackson

Jefferson Davis:

Educated at West Point

Served in the Blackhawk Wars

Elected to the House of Representatives

Rejoined the Army to fight in Mexican War - Rose to the rank of Colonel – decorated for bravery

Served in the US Senate

Appointed as Secretary of War by Franklin Pierce

Re-elected to the Senate

Resigned when Mississippi seceded


The Confederate “White House”

Confederate Capital established in Richmond

Richmond Became the Union Army’s Primary Objective


The Confederate Seal

MOTTO  “With God As Our Vindicator”


Lincoln’s Generals

Winfield Scott

Joseph Hooker

Ulysses S. Grant

Irwin McDowell

George McClellan

George Meade

Ambrose Burnside


The Confederate Generals

“Stonewall” Jackson

Nathan Bedford Forrest

George Pickett

Jeb Stuart

James Longstreet

Robert E. Lee


Battle of Bull Run (1st Manassas)July, 1861

The Hero of Bull Run: Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson

the peninsular campaign the seven days battles bluffing on a grand scale
The Peninsular Campaign: The Seven Days Battles – Bluffing on a Grand Scale

Union Casualties: 15,849

Confederate Casualties: 20,135


The Battle of the Ironclads,March, 1862

The Monitor vs.the Merrimac


War in the East: Battle of Fredericksburg December 11-15, 1862

Another disaster for the Union: 12,000 casualties


Grant Takes Command

A new strategy:

War of Attrition:

Bleed the South

Always advance

Never fall back or regroup

Use the North’s resources of troops and supplies.


Atlanta Falls to Sherman’s Army – Sept. 1864

The fall of Atlanta assures Lincoln’s re-election.


1864 Election

Pres. Lincoln (R)

George McClellan (D)


1864 Copperhead

Campaign Poster


Sherman takes revenge on the “Hotbed of Secession”

His army burns Columbia, South Carolina


Surrender at AppomattoxApril 9, 1865

Grant now had 120,000+ men in his army.

Lee was down to fewer than 25,000


Army of Northern Virginia Surrenders its Battle Flags

Army of the Potomac Presents Arms

in Salute to an Honored Enemy


Prisoners and Prison Camps

Each side took thousands of prisoners during the four years of the war.

At first, prisoners were exchanged – but exchanged prisoners often rejoined the ranks.

The Union stopped exchanging in order to deprive the South of this manpower.

As a result, the number of prisoners that had to be kept in the camps increased – far beyond the capacity of either side to house them.


The Confederate Prison at Andersonville, Georgia

One small stream served as water supply and sewer.

Prisoners lived in unheated tents. Food was scarce, if available at all

35,000 Union prisoners of war died. The commandant was convicted of war crimes after the war – and executed.


An Andersonville Survivor

Another view of Andersonville


Some Union Prison Camps Were

Not Much Better

In the Union prison in Elmira NY, confederate prisoners lived in tents, without heat, even during the upstate NY winters. Death from freezing and disease was common.


The Assassin

John Wilkes Booth


“With malice toward none, with charity for all, with firmness in the right as God gives us to see the right, let us strive on to finish the work we are in, to bind up the nation's wounds, to care for him who shall have borne the battle and for his widow and his orphan, to do all which may achieve and cherish a just and lasting peace among ourselves and with all nations.”

Abraham Lincoln – March 4, 1865



Two-thirds of the South’s shipping had been destroyed

9,000 miles of Railroad were destroyed

Property values in the south were down by 70%

Thousands of acres of cotton fields had been burned

In terms of manpower, the South lost 260,000 men killed

One out of every five white southern males had been killed

Hundreds of thousands had been wounded – many were permanently disabled.

In 1866, 20% of the Mississippi budget was spent on artificial limbs



Four Issues of Reconstruction:

How should the Southern states re-enter the Union?

Should the South, especially the former Rebels, be punished? If so, how badly?

What to do with the 4,000,000 newly freed slaves ?

Which branch of government has the authority to make these decisions – the Executive or the Legislative?