Burlington County and The Civil War 1861-1865
The John Woolman Memorial – 99 Branch St., Mt. Holly John Woolman: October 19, 1720 – October 7, 1772
John Woolman (October 19, 1720 – October 7, 1772) was an itinerant Quaker preacher, traveling throughout the American colonies, advocating against conscription, military taxation, and particularly slavery. John Woolman came from a family of Friends (Quakers). His grandfather, also named John Woolman, was one of the early settlers of New Jersey. His father Samuel Woolman was a farmer. Their estate was between Burlington and Mount Holly .
Final days • Woolman's final journey was to England in 1772. During the voyage he stayed in steerage and spent time with the crew rather than in the better accommodations of the other passengers. He attended the London Yearly Meeting, and the Friends there were persuaded to oppose slavery in their Epistle (letter sent to other Friends in other places). John Woolman went from London to York where he contracted smallpox and died. • Woolman’s wife, Sarah Ellis Woolman • is buried in the Mount Holly Friend’s • Burial Ground. They married in 1749. • A son died in infancy; Daughter Mary lived to adulthood. • Works by Woolman • Essays • "Some Considerations on Keeping Negroes", 1753 • "Some Considerations on Keeping Negroes, Part Second", 1762 • "Considerations on Pure Wisdom and Human Policy, on Labor, on Schools, and on • the Right Use of the Lord's Outward Gifts", 1768 • "Considerations on the True Harmony of Mankind and • How it is to be Maintained", 1770 • Book • The Journal of John Woolman, published posthumously • The Journal of John Woolman is considered to be an • important spiritual document, as shown by its inclusion • in the Harvard Classics.
Burlington Friends MeetingSite of first anti-slavery tract written in the American colonies in 1688 Document prepared by Francis Daniel Pastorius of Germantown, Pennsylvania. It was read at the yearly meeting of the Delaware Valley Quakers at the Friends Meeting House on this site. That meeting house was replaced by the present structure around 1786.
New Jersey’s Ambivalence towards the Civil War • New Jersey did not vote for Abe Lincoln in 1860. • Most citizens of New Jersey, and Mount Holly, were not interested in fighting a war to free slaves. • At first, Governor Olden was not in favor of war. However, once the Southern states seceded, and Lincoln called for troops to protect the integrity of the Union, New Jersey responded quickly. February 15, 1855 – A debate will take place at the Lyceum, Mount Holly, on Monday evening, February 19, 1855, between William M. Ewan and Joseph Allinson on the question: “Is War justifiable under any circumstances.” Mr. Ewan, affirmative. Mr. Allinson, negative. Admission 6 ½ cents. March 8, 1855 – The ladies and public are invited to attend a Debate between W.M. Ewan and J. Allinson at Concert Hall, Mount Holly on Monday evening March 12, 1855 on the question: “Is war justifiable under any circumstances.” Mr. Ewan will have his sword. Ladies free. Gentlemen 10 cents.
James Walter Wall May 26, 1820 – June 9, 1872 -Son of U.S. Senator Garret Dorset Wall -Born in Trenton; Graduate of Princeton (1838) -Moved to Burlington (1847) -Elected Mayor of Burlington in 1850 -An ardent copperhead who viewed slavery as a private-property issue from a racist perspective. -Attended 1860 Democratic Convention in Charleston -Outspoken critic of the Union Cause, writing inflammatory articles in copperhead newspapers. -September 11, 1860, dragged kicking and screaming from his house by U.S. marshals and Burlington police. He went down hard, tossing one officer across the room and knocking another unconscious. Released in two weeks after signing a loyalty oath – but he warned of dire results if there were to be another incident. -Elected U.S. Senator by legislature – (6 week remainder of Senator Thompson’s term) Jan. 14-Mar. 3, 1863. -Moved to Elizabeth in 1869 and died there at age of 52. -Buried in St. Mary’s Episcopal Churchyard, Burlington
From the Civil War collection of the Burlington County Historical Society
The City of BeverlyBurlington County’s Main Link with the Civil War • Mustering-in City • Camp Cadwallader • Army Hospital • Military Cemetery Because the city served as a river and railroad transportation nexus, the government designated Beverly as a Civil War “mustering-in city.” The 10th, 23rd, 24th, 25th and 34th New Jersey Regiments mustered-in at Beverly.
The City of Beverly was one of five Troop Mustering/Recruiting Centers in N.J. (the other four were Trenton, Flemington, Newark and Freehold) The hospital (which opened fully July 28, 1864) was located at a converted factory at the north west corner of Broad Street at the Railroad Tracks. Camp Cadwallader and the parade ground were located south of the hospital on land ending at Warren St. (1861-1863) In August, 1864, the first burial was held in the cemetery across the tracks from the hospital, The Wharf was located at the foot of Mount Holly Street. W W
1. Camden-Amboy RR; 2. Brick Factory/Barracks; 3. Barracks; 4. Cooks Shades; 5. Officers’ Tents; 6. Guardhouse Camp Cadwallader, Beverly – Sept. 1862 This is the only known image of Camp Cadwallader at Beverly. Drawn by John G. Keyser of Bridgeton, private, 24th Regiment, NJ Infantry volunteers (Sept. 2, 1862 to June 29, 1863) . Courtesy Riverfront Historical Society and Cumberland Co. Historical Society.
John G. Keyser, a German immigrant to Philadelphia, and later, a resident of Bridgeport, NJ, was a gifted artist. He lived in the United States for 50 years and during the Civil War served in the 24th Regiment, New Jersey Infantry Volunteers. During his time at Camp Cadwallader, Beverly, he painted scenes of military life. Several copies of his sketches were obtained by the Riverfront Historical Society. The faded sketch below is of a military viewing at the funeral of a fallen soldier. Keyser returned to Oberstenfeld, Germany and died there at age 75 in 1902. Sketch of Camp Cadwallader and these images, Courtesy of Warren Lummis Library, Greenwich, NJ
The Beverly Civil War Real Estate(1861 Beverly was made up of present-day Beverly, Delanco, and Edgewater Park) • 30 acres of land between the railroad and Warren St. were rented from Henry Seybert for the Camp. Maneuvers for Gen. William Bryan’s 10th NJ Regiment had been held on this spot (called Camp Stratton) prior to being taken over by the War Department. • There was a 3 story brick factory building on the property at the north west corner of Broad St. The building was used as a barracks from 1862 till 1864 . . . then as the hospital from August 1864 until August, 1865. After the war, it was a cordage factory which burned down in 1872. Today, a trucking company occupies the ground where the hospital once stood. • The Camp Commander was Brigadier General George Maxwell Robeson. He assumed command on Aug. 20, 1862. • The head surgeon of the Beverly General Hispital was Dr. C. Wagner. The hospital only functioned for about a year. There was a high turnover of area “contract surgeons” during the year of operation. • The land for the “Soldier’s Cemetery” was donated by Joseph Weyman. The first burial was of Walter Haskell on August 29, 1864. Total Civil War soldiers buried here is disputed at between 147 and 163, with 7 being “unknown”. The cemetery if full, at 48,533 today.
Beverly emerged as the logical location for a camp and hospital because of its transportation links, both railway and watrerway.
Troops were transported to Philadelphia either by ferry from the foot of Broad St. or by train to Camden, where they were ferried across the Delaware. Upon arrival in Philadelphia they marched to the Union Volunteer Refreshment Saloon along the rail tracks in Philadelphia. After a substantial meal prepared and served by volunteers, they then they boarded a train for Havre de Grace Maryland, marched to Baltimore, then to Ellicott Mills, for the final march to Washington.
Civil War Hospitals Valerie Little-Vaughn `
After the war, he married Rachel Inskeep Haines and had three children. In 1870 he moved to the family home in Evesham. His daughters married prominent businessmen and a family member occupied this house until 1936. Dr. Woolston had a great interest in fostering the public schools in Marlton and was a co-founder of the Philadelphia, Marlton and Medford Railroad company. He died in 1910 at the age of 77. Vincentown native, son of Samuel Woolston. Elijah graduated from the University of Pennsylvania in 1854. After 2 years assisting his father, he moved to Iowa He was appointed brigade surgeon of the militia active in service against the Indian. Returned to New Jersey in 1859 and resumed medical practice. Elijah Birdsall Woolston1833-1910 4th New Jersey MilitiaContract Surgeon, Beverly Military Hospital
In 1861, Dr. Woolston was commissioned, by Governor Olden as surgeon of the First Division Brigade and served with the 4th NJ Militia. After his initial three month enlistment, it appears that he took the examination to become part of the US Volunteer Medical Corps but was not active until the government established the military hospital in Beverly NJ in 1864. This convalescent hospital eventually had 2,500 beds. The community was very involved in supplementing the work of the hospital staff . Amputations and other operations were performed there, and the limbs where given proper burials on land that eventually became the Beverly National Cemetery. Dr. Woolston was promoted to post-surgeon. The hospital opened in August 1864, and closed down in August 1865.
Patients were brought from Philadelphia on an old river steamer, the “John A. Warner”. The captain always sounded several blasts of the whistle as he approached the docks. Citizens of Beverly assembled at the wharf with any kind of conveyance to transport the wounded soldiers to the hospital. As the journey began, some patients walking, some on stretchers, the church bells of the town tolled in welcome. Women lined the streets dispensing coffee and food.
Beverly’s Civil War Hospital Federal officials made use of the shuttered Union Manufacturing Company works, a former cutlery factory and converted the facility into an army hospital for treating injured troops there. Some of the barracks of Camp Cadwallader were also used for hospital purposes. The Hospital was completely organized by July 28, 1864. Of some 3,000 men treated in the hospital, at least 140 died and were buried in a nearby large field owned by Joseph Weyman of Beverly, who donated this land, fronting on Mount Holly Road, (in present-day Edgewater Park Township) to the government as a “Soldier’s Cemetery.” With the end of the war, the hospital became the first cordage factory in Beverly. This is a picture of a similarly set up hospital near Washington, DC. With the brick building and tents, it appears as the Beverly Hospital must have looked.
Beverly National Cemetery, Bridgeboro Rd. in Edgewater Park • Began as one-acre plot in 1863; added to in 1936, 37, 48 and 51 • 147 Union soldiers buried there – 10 of them unknown. • Listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1997. • 64.6 acres; 48,533 veterans
Civil War Soldier At Rest Beverly, NJ The statue of the Civil War Union Soldier at rest was once located in Beverly National Cemetery, a few miles away in Edgewater Park on Mt. Holly Road. Prior to 1957, the statue, atop a pillar, stood in the center of the first circle inside the gates of the Cemetery, which places it very near the Civil War burials, located immediately on the left as you enter the gates.
More on the Soldier at Rest… • In 1871, while the war memories remained fresh, Dr. E. P. Townsend, speaking at a Beverly town meeting, suggested that a monument should be erected at the National Cemetery in memory of the men who died in the conflict. • In 1872, the New Jersey Legislature passed an act appropriating $10,000 to erect a state monument at the National Cemetery in Beverly. The act resulted in creation of the “Soldier at Rest” monument to memorialize the soldiers and sailors from New Jersey who fought and died in the War of the Rebellion. The Philadelphia firm of Van Gunden and Young won the contract to execute the memorial. • The 70-foot high column comprised eleven pieces of marble, a total of over 1,000 cubic feet of stone, quarried and carved in Caravia, Italy. One of Italy’s most renowned sculptors produced the soldier statue. The assembled monument, including shaft, pediments, capitals and statue, weighed in at about 80 tons and was once located in a grassy circle closest to the superintendent’s residence and maintenance garages. • A great crowd, including the Governor of New Jersey, civilians, and many military organizations, arrived at the cemetery on 28 June 1875 to dedicate the memorial. Over the ensuing years following its erection, the column supporting the statue developed serious cracks, causing the monument’s disassembling following World War II. • Charles Moses received the contract to rehabilitate the memorial. He disassembled it, but died before completing the restoration. His widow presented the “Soldier at Rest” statue to Beverly’s American Legion Post 115 and this organization has resisted all attempts to move the statue back to the National Cemetery. American Legion Post 115 700 Melbourne Ave. Cor. Melbourne & Cherrry Courtesy of Paul W. Schopp
Local military company affiliations • Gov. Olden sent the 4 principal N.J. Guard regiments (First, Second, Third & Fourth) to Washington in time to participate in the First Battle of Bull Run in July 1861. • Members of Mount Holly’s home guard were mostly part of the Third and Fourth Regiments, and part of General Phil Kearny’s Jersey Brigade. • Later in the war, many area residents became a part of the Thirty-fourth New Jersey Volunteers.
Burlco Jerseymen Officers • First Regiment Infantry – Few -Wm. Montgomery; Samuel Read • Second Regiment Infantry –One – Eugen Schumo, Asst. Surgeon • Third Regiment Infantry – Maj. William Bryan, Capt. Franklin Knight, Joseph Rowand, Ridgway Poinsett; First Lt. Griffith Carr, E. Burd Grubb, Thomas Ekings, Wm. Miller. • Fourth Regiment Infantry –Brewin, Shaw, Crammer, Barzilla Ridgeway, King, Wright, Letchworth, Hall, Nippins, John Ridgeway, Brooks, Nihols, Berwin, Stidfole, Taylor, Cross, Hollingshead. • Fifth Regiment Infantry –Few – Col. Samuel Starr; Lt. Gershom Mott,, Surg. James C. Fisher, Thomas Sovereign, Guy Bryan, Thomas Eayre, Guy Bryan, jr., Jos. Simmons. • Sixth Regiment Infantry – Company F (Band) –Col. Gershom Mott, Col. George Burling, Jos. Hayes, Jos. Pippett, Jesse Coggswell • Seventh Regiment Infantry –One – Surgeon Alvin Satterthwait • Ninth Regiment Infantry –Few – Jos. Allen, Chas. Hopkinton, Joel Clift, Samuel Keys • Tenth Regiment Infantry – Wm. Bryan, Wm. Murphy, Johnson, Perrine, Smith, John Bryan, Jesse Thomas, Samuel Stille, Pepper, Buck, Robt. Love, Silas Wampole, Jos. Smith, F. Shellenberger, Jos. Horner. • Twelfth Regiment Infantry - Company C –Capt. Joel Clift, Capt. John Mitchell, Lt. Elwood Griscom, Sam Mattson, Henry Reed. • Fourteenth Regiment Infantry –Few – Wm. Leatherbury, Tenadore Woodward • Twenty-third (“Quaker”) Regiment InfantryCompanies A & B – Col. John Cox, Col. Ryerson, Col. E. Burd Grubb YAHOOS,Geo. Brown, Francis Milnor, Thompson, Parmenter, Winans, Perkins, Downs, Nichols, Cooke, Higgins, Kirkbride, Carr, Severs, Nerwbold, Grobler, Smith, Ridgeway, Risdon, McCabe, Root, Taylor, Burnett, Sibley, Bannin, Browne, Newbold, Dobbins, Shinn, Wright, Budd, Riggs, Mc “The Sunday School Army of Burlington County.” “Boisterous Citizen Soldiers from South Jersey”. • Kee, Ekings, Ayers, Arbuckle, Holman, McIntyre, Seeds, Smith, Garman, Stokes, Frayer, Haines. • Twenty-fourth Regiment Infantry – Few - Wm. Stockton; James Woodward • Thirty-fourth Regiment Infantry – Company A, C, D –Robt. Ekings, Martin L. Haines, Thos. Taylor, R. Moore, W. Woodward, J. Wright, J. Connor • Thirty-fifth Regiment Infantry – One – Edward Kennedy • Thirty-seventh Regiment Infantry - Company H, I – E. Burd Grubb, Parker Grubb, J. Warner Kinsey, J. Maguire, H. Woodward, M. Johnson, W. Stiles • Fortieth Regiment Infantry –Few – Capt. John Goddenough, Jos. Mount, Henry Woodward, Samuel Phillips, James Phillips, Geo. Beldin. • First Cavalry, 16th Regiment, NJ Volunteers – Richard Hamilton, Corland Inglin, Edward Gaskill, John Williams, Aaron Robbins, Joseph Reed. • Second Cavalry, 32nd Regiment –One – Frank Adams • Third Cavalry, 36th Regiment – One – Malcolm Murphy History of Burlington and Mercer Counties Woodward and Hageman - 1883
Engagements of Jerseymen • First Regiment Infantry – • Second Regiment Infantry – • Third Regiment Infantry – Bull Run, Manassas, Malvern Hill, Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, Salem Heights, Gettysburg, Fairfield, Williamsport, Rappahonnock Station, Mine Run, Wilderness, Spottsylvania, Petersburg, Hatchers Run, Fort Steedman, Appomattox. • Fourth Regiment Infantry – (same battles as the Third) • Fifth Regiment Infantry – Yorktown, Williamsport, Fair Oaks, Seven Pines, Savage Station, Glendale, Malvern Hill,Bristoe Station, Second Bull Run, Chantilly, Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, Wilderness, Spotsylvania, Petersburg. • Sixth Regiment Infantry –(same battles as the Fifth) • Seventh Regiment Infantry – • Ninth Regiment Infantry –Naval activity; Attacks on Charleston, South Carolina ; Petersburg, Deep Creek, Cold Harbor, Goldsborol • Tenth Regiment Infantry – Carrsville, Wilderness, Spottsylvania, Spottsylvania Court-House, North & South Anna River, Hanover Court-House, Tolopotomy Creek, Cold Harbor, Petersburg, Winchester, Charleston, Petersburg, Farmville, Lee’s Surrender. • Twelfth Regiment Infantry –Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, Falling Waters, Auburn Mills, Wilderness, Spottsylvania, Petersburg, Hibridge, Lee’ s Sirremder • Fourteenth Regiment Infantry – • Twenty-third Regiment Infantry –Fredericksburg, Second Fredericksburg, Burnside’s Mud Mafch, Salem Church • Twenty-fourth Regiment Infantry – • Thirty-fourth Regiment Infantry –Columbus, Hickman, Clinton, Mayfield, Paris Landing, Nashville, Fort Huger, Spanish Fort, Fort Blakeley, Mibile. • Thirty-fifth Regiment Infantry – • Thirty-seventh Regiment Infantry – Petersburg • Fortieth Regiment Infantry –Hatcher’s Run, Fort Steedman, capture of Petersburg, Sailor’s Creek, Farmville, Appomattox. • First Cavalry, 16th Regiment, NJ Volunteers –Innumerable battles, including Fredericksburg, Gettysburg and Appomatox. • Second Cavalry, 32nd Regiment – • Third Cavalry, 36th Regiment – History of Burlington and Mercer Counties Woodward and Hageman - 1883
The 23rd New Jersey Volunteers came from Burlington County and served in the Civil War from September 1862 to June 1863. In April, 1863, Colonel Grubb unveiled a blue flag with the coat of arms of the state of New Jersey to the Yahoos – a gift from the children in the Sunday schools of Burlington County that many members of the regiment attended (“The Sunday School Army”).
23rd New Jersey Volunteers The war is going badly. Confederate victories threaten to entice Maryland and other states to secede. The North needs a victory and the Army needs reinforcements, so this South Jersey rag-tag group of soldiers are rushed to Fredericksburg without basic training. The 23rd arrives so ill disciplined and untrained that they are written off as a bunch of “Yahoos.” The Yahoos are honor-bound to serve nine months. They start an intense on-the-job transition from citizens to soldiers and learn the Rebels are not their only enemy. Incompetent officers, deadly new weapons, sickness and savage weather are just as lethal. “The ‘Yahoos’,“as they called themselves, were comprised of "well-educated farm boys and artisans -- not military men at all," according to Jim Buck, author of “Journey to Honor”, a book based on the Diary of Josiah Crispin, one of the Yahoos. Gen. E. Burd Grubb
23rd Regiment Infantry "Yahoos“ Organized at Beverly, N.J., and mustered in September 13, 1862. Left State for Washington, D.C., September 26, thence moved to Frederick, Md. Attached to 1st Brigade, 1st Division, 6th Army Corps, Army of the Potomac, to June, 1863. • March to Bakersville, Md,, October 8, 1862, and join 1st New Jersey Brigade. At Bakersville, Md., until October 30. • At New Baltimore November 9-16. • Battle of Fredericksburg, Va., December 12-15. • Duty near Falmouth, Va., until April 27, 1863. • "Mud March" January 20-24. • Chancellorsville Campaign April 27-May 6. • Operations at Franklin's Crossing April 29-May 2. • Battle of Maryes Heights, Fredericksburg, May 3. • Salem Heights May 3-4. • Banks' Ford May 4. • Regiment volunteered for service before muster out during the Gettysburg (Pa.) Campaign, and moved to Harrisburg, Pa. • Mustered out June 27, 1863 Regiment lost during service 4 Officers and 31 Enlisted men killed and mortally wounded and 1 Officer and 54 Enlisted men by disease. Total 90.
23rd New Jersey Volunteer Infantry (9 month enlistees) Battle of Salem Church Spotsylvania County, Virginia` May 3 – 4, 1863
E. Burd Grubb organized the annual reunions of the Yahoos at his “Grassmere” estate in Edgewater Park.
Grubb as he looked in 1862-1863. Blue NJ flag on right was given to the Yahoo’s by the Sunday School classes of Burlington County.
Burial Places for the Men of the 23rd New Jersey RegimentOn a list of 57 burials of members of the Yahoo regiment, 40 are found in Burlington County towns, with 17 in Jacobstown cemeteries alone. • Jacobstown – 17 • Upper Springfield – 4 • Columbus - 4 • Crosswicks – 4 • Wrightstown – 3 • Bordentown – 2 • Pemberton – 2 • Burlington - 1 • Sykesville – 1 • Cinnaminson – 1 • Medford 1 Burlington County Elsewhere • Washington, DC - 4 • Fredericksburg - 3 • Allentown 2 • Trenton (Riverview) - 2 • Anapolis, MD – 2 • Manchester - 1 • Zion Methodist - 1 • Dakota Territory - 1
George Childs Burling1834-1885 • Born February 17, 1834 in Burlington County • Successful coal merchant • Local militia officer when mustered into the 4th NJ Militia. • Captain of Company F in 6th New Jersey Infantry. Later promoted to Major, then Lt. Colonel. • Second in command in Peninsula Campaign and at Second Bull Run (wounded). • Succeeded Gershom Mott as Colonel of the 6th NJ • Led the 6th in the battles of Fredericksburg & Chancellorsville – where, along with Gen. Mott, was wounded again. • Commanded brigade at Gettysburg – suffered 513 casualties as he plugged gaps in line from Emmitsburg Rd. thruoug the Peach Orchard, over the Wheatfield and down to Devil’s Den as the Third Corps was rolled back to Cemetery Ridge. On July 3, supported federal artillery during Pickett’s Charge. • At first slighted for his Gettysburg efforts, after a year he received a brefet promotion to brigadier general “for gallant and meritorious services at the Battle of Gettysburg, Pa.” • Post-bellum worked for Pennsylvania Railroad. Burling’s presentation sword is part of the Gettysburg National Park Visitor’s Center collection.
Thomas Haines Dudley1819-1893Evesham Township / Camden • Born in Evesham Township • Lawyer; Camden Co. Clerk – wrote Camden City Charter • Dudley St., East Camden, named after him • Abolitionist – personally raised $1,000 to ransom a black family kidnapped back to slavery, and to personally rescue them, posing as a slave trader. • U.S. Consul at Liverpool (rewarded by Lincoln for support) • Checkmated the Confederacy in its efforts to engage Britain in trade and obtain blockade runners and other ships. • Created an intelligence force to monitor shipments of war materials. • Post-bellum: President of Camden Bar Assn., President of NJ Agricultural Society. • Writer; Debated Walt Whitman. • Buried at Colestown Cemetery on Kings Highway.
Gershom Mott – 1822-1884 Resigned as a Major General in 1866 Bordentown • Teller at Bordentown bank when Civil War began • 1861, Col. Of 5th New Jersey Infantry • Promoted to Brigadier General after Williamsburg and Second Bull Run • After Fredericksburg, Commander of 2nd NJ Brigade • Severely wounded at Chancellorsville in May, 1863 • 1864 , commanded Second Corps’ Fourth Division. Relieved of command after Spotsylvania issue with his troops. • Wounded just before Confederate surrender at Appomatox. • Promoted to Major General in 1866 • After war, paymaster of the Camden and Amboy RR • 1875: New Jersey State Treasurer • Fort Mott in Delaware River named in his honor
Vincentown – 1861-1865Microcosom of Civil War’s Impact on Rural Southern New Jersey Eayre Woolston Burr BRIAN IRICK
Burr House – 52 Mill St., Vincentown- 1790 SIGNIFICANCE: This structure predates the development of Mill Street. Its Victorian type setting away from the street was actually due to its orientation to the old Jacksonville Road, now just the driveway to the house. The house was built by the Burr family who operated the various sawmills and gristmill located nearby on the Rancocas.