Union Commanders President Abraham Lincoln Ulysses S. Grant William T. Sherman George B. McClellan
Confederate Commanders President Jefferson Davis Robert E. Lee T.J. "Stonewall" Jackson Braxton Bragg Joseph E. Johnston Albert S. Johnston
European Thoughts? • European nations thought the CSA would win. • The last time someone conquered this much land was Napoleon in 1812. ***Before the Civil War, America was thought of as a powerless and “third rate nation” to European nations and other world powers. After the Civil War America’s Army and Navy grew so large and so fast that it impressed and scared world powers as a legitimate and powerful nation***
Winfield Scott’s idea. • Start of war = 42 ships for 3000 miles of coastline…? • By end of the war = 700 ships, able to stop over half of the C.S.A. shipments and supply ships. • Stops “King Cotton” • Food shortages, riots
South’s Strategy • Prepare and wait (wanted to go in peace); defensive war • War of attrition – wear down enemy; failed to realize that the North had more resources • Stopped exports of cotton; Europe turned to Egypt and India
Tactics and Technology • Generals trained in European warfare of having masses of troops charge • New rifles and artillery were more accurate and deadly; bullet shaped ammunition and rifling • Artillery could fire shells and canisters • Commanders were slow to change tactics
April 12, 1861 Confederate forces attack Fort Sumter, S.C. and shelled it for 33 straight hours. Only one man died on each side, from misfiring cannons. After this, Lincoln calls out the USA military
Reaction to Ft. Sumter • Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Arkansas joined the Confederacy • Border States stay neutral
The First Battle of Bull Run(Manassas)(July 1861) • July 21, 1861 • General Irvin McDowell-North • General P.G.T. Beauregard-South • Railroad used to move troops • Gen. Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson refuses to give up • Sightseers watch; North flees • Casualties: North 2900; South 2000 • Results? Both sides realize their troops need a LOT more training
War in the West • General George McClellen (USA); ordered to build and train the army • General Ulysses S. Grant led Northern Army in the West to try to seize the Mississippi River
Forts Henry and Donelson • Used gunboats • Both forts in Tennessee fell to Grant • Nashville fell • Grant moved farther south toward Mississippi
Battle of Shiloh • General Johnston (South) attacked Grant (North) at Shiloh in Mississippi • Grant was reinforced by Buell and defeated Johnston’s army, killing him • 13,000 Northern /11,000 Southern casualties
Mississippi River • Naval squadron under David Farragut seized New Orleans for the Union • He captured Baton Rouge, La and Natchez, MS • Took Memphis, TN on June 6, 1862 • Only Vicksburg, MS and Port Hudson, LA remained for the North to capture to split the Confederacy
War in the East • Monitor and the Merrimack • Merrimack was wooden ship with iron plates bolted on • Merrimack damaged three wooden ships • Wooden navies now obsolete
Battle of Antietam • Lee invaded Maryland, hoping for European support • Battle plans leaked! • McClellan delayed; Sept. 17, 1862 • North lost 12,000 and Lee 14,000; retreated to VA; As Lee withdrew, McClellan did not attack • Bloodiest day of war ever
Peninsular Campaign • Confederates destroyed Merrimack to keep it from being captured by the North • McClellan was too cautious • Moved army east of Richmond • Heavy casualties in the Battle of Seven Pines
South Attacks • Lee attacks McClellan in the Seven days’ Battles; McClellan retreats • Second Battle of Bull Run: General John Pope put in charge of Northern Army • Jackson attacked from the rear and Lee from the front, defeating Pope • McClellan returns to command
Gettysburg, PA (July 1863) • Meade Vs. Lee • Turning Point in the war for the Union. • Last time South invades the North and it’s the only time General Lee is really defeated. • 3 day battle. The union lost the first two days but won the third day.
Gettysburg 1st Day of Battle 3rd Day of Battle
Gettysburg • Bloodiest battle of war • Union had 23,000 casualties • South had 28,000 casualties • July 4, 1863, Lee retreats to Virginia
July 3, 1863 • Lee opens with artillery barrage • 15,000 Confederates attack • Pickett’s Charge; cut up by Northern artillery; ½ casualties
If you like wars, battles, and strategy… read a former Summer Reading title for the on-levels… Killer Angels Michael Shaara Talks about the battle of Gettysburg from the perspective of the major generals on both sides…
Gettysburg Address • Nov. 19, 1863 • President Lincoln explained the meaning of the Civil War in his own words… • Has become an iconic representation of American thought • Note: Lincoln was a HUGE fan of George Washington – listen for several GW and TJ phrases…
“Fourscore and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent a new nation, conceived in liberty and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal. • Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation or any nation so conceived and so dedicated can long endure. We are met on a great battlefield of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of it as a final resting place for those who died here that the nation might live. • This we may, in all propriety do. But in a larger sense, we cannot dedicate, we cannot consecrate, we cannot hallow this ground. The brave men, living and dead who struggled here have hallowed it far above our poor power to add or detract. The world will little note nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. • It is rather for us the living, we here be dedicated to the great task remaining before us--that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they here gave the last full measure of devotion--that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain, that this nation shall have a new birth of freedom, and that government of the people, by the people, for the people shall not perish from the earth."
Seige of Vicksburg ( May – July 1863) • Grant moves to Vicksburg, Mississippi • “The key to the Mississippi River” –President Lincoln • Grant attacks twice and fails. Lays a siege to Vicksburg. • Vicksburg surrenders on July 4, 1862, which splits the Confederacy in two. • Turning Point in the West
Southern Homefront near the end of the Civil War. • Disaster for CSA. The South didn’t have any wealth or materials to start a war. Their money was all in land and slaves. • No manufacturing or workers to work and produce goods. All the men were drafted to fight in the South. • The Government and economy were failing with every passing year. Started to just print money. Inflation was at 9000% by the end! Reason why the South lost the war?
Northern Homefront near the end of the Civil war. • Economy was improving. • The U.S. military was becoming very powerful. • Didn’t fight on Northern soil. • Emancipation Proclamation divides populous.
Atlanta Campaign: 1864 • Sherman moves from Chattanooga to Atlanta with 98,000 troops. • J.C. Johnston is the Confederate leader at first, then replaced by John Bell Hood. • Takes Atlanta and marches 250 miles to Savannah, “March to the Sea” • “Total War” tactic. • Sherman takes Savannah and gives it to Lincoln as a “Christmas present.”
Battle of Kennesaw Mountain (June 27, 1864) • Very bad move by Sherman. Didn’t want to go around and march away from supply lines so tried to go right through Kennesaw Mountain. • 3,ooo Union soldiers died. Sherman then decided to move around Kennesaw Mountain towards Atlanta.
Grant Takes Command • Lincoln must win battles to win the election of 1864 • Grant plans to use North’s superior population and industry to wear down the South
Election of 1864 • Lincoln and Andrew Johnson, Vice President • McClellan, Democrat • Capture of Atlanta helped Lincoln win reelection
Siege of Petersburg and Appomattox Court House • Grant moves around Richmond to Petersburg to cut off the supplies to Richmond. • “Battle of the Crater” is fought here first and then Grant later lays siege to the city. • Lee’s Army is almost wiped out and he has to retreat. • Grant follows Lee and after several small battles Grant surrounds Lee at Appomattox Court House, VA April 9, 1865 where Lee surrenders.
At Appomattox… • April 9, 1865 Lee met Grant and surrendered • Grant offered food and ordered celebration by Northern troops ended
A Peaceful End • CSA soldiers were to turn over their rifles, but officers could keep their pistols • CSA soldiers who had horses could keep them (needed for spring plowing) • CSA soldiers could return home without being disturbed by U.S. authorities • “The war is over. The rebels are our countrymen again.” (Grant)
600,000 Americans died, mostly from disease and wounds. The South was in horrible condition. Large portion of the population was dead, land was scourged, buildings and homes are destroyed, and then put under military control for the time being. April 14, 1865 Lincoln was assassinated. Reconstruction discussions began in Washington D.C.
Southern Politics • Branches and powers of the Confederate government were similar to those of the US, but special provisions were made for state’s rights and slavery. • The confederate government had to convince its citizens to sacrifice their personal interests for the common good. Because they had fewer resources than the North, the war effort depended on making the best possible use of what the South had.
General Lee called for a draft to ensure that enough soldiers would be in the army to fight. In April, 1862, the Confederate congress passed a law stating that all men between 18 and 35 would be required to serve for two years in the military. Services of volunteers were automatically extended for two years at the same time. After the Battle of Antietam, the upper age for the draft became 45 and later it became 50. Owners of more than 20 slaves were excused from serving as well as those who were wealthy enough to hire someone to serve in their place.
The confederate government sought recognition from the governing powers in Europe, sending representatives to both France and Great Britain in May, 1861. it did NOT receive recognition as an independent country, but did receive some unofficial help from Great Britain.
Southern Economy • When the Confederate government took over the economy, it determined the amount of production of wool, cotton, and leather and seized control of southern railroads. Farmers were required to contribute one tenth of their produce to the war effort.
The south faced a scary food shortage. Invading armies disrupted the south’s food growing regions and the draft pulled large numbers of males out of the farming regions. Massive food riots happened all over the south. • Hardships at home created widespread desertions in the Confederate Army.