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Chapter 1. Foundation for Curriculum Development. Defining Curriculum. How would you define curriculum? DON’T PEAK. How would you define curriculum?. How would you define curriculum?. Curriculum - definition.

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chapter 1

Chapter 1

Foundation for Curriculum Development

defining curriculum
Defining Curriculum
  • How would you define curriculum?
    • DON’T PEAK

How would you define curriculum?

How would you define curriculum?

curriculum definition
Curriculum - definition
  • Planned sequence of (1) what students are to learn, (2) how students acquire that learning, and (3) how students’ learning is verified.
importance of curriculum
Importance of Curriculum
  • Reflect back on your K-12 physical education experiences and:
    • Identify two things you enjoyed about the program
    • Identify two things you disliked about the program
importance of curriculum1
Importance of Curriculum
  • The curriculum is closely linked to the quality of a physical education program.
    • It is either the 1st or 2nd ranked determinant for positive or negative student comments regarding physical education (you’ll read this article later)
overall picture
Overall Picture
  • A curriculum plan can look daunting. However, remember it’s a lot like a lesson plan. It includes your name, school name, standards, objectives, assessments, and learning activities. It’s still a plan, it’s just an overarching plan for the entire grade level.
global question
Global Question
  • What is the primary aim of the curriculum?
  • If what you are teaching is not improving student learning, why are you teaching it?
  • Sounds like a “no-brainer” concept but yet it is often violated.
curriculum planning
Curriculum Planning
  • “What should physically education students know and be able to do?”
    • What are some guiding documents for curriculum planning?
1 guiding the curriculum naspe a physically educated person
1. Guiding the Curriculum – NASPE: A Physically Educated Person

“Outcomes project” defined physically educated person

      • NASPE, 1986
  • Has learned skills necessary to perform a variety of physical activities
  • Knows the implications of and the benefits derived from physical activities
  • Does participate regularly in physical activity.
  • Is physically fit
  • Values physical activity and its contribution to a healthy lifestyle
2 guiding the curriculum ct standards 2006
2. Guiding the Curriculum – CT standards (2006)
  • Healthy and balanced living standards for CT
    • PE and health standards
    • Do not use the word standards interchangeably with outcomes
3 guiding the curriculum naspe standards 2004
3. Guiding the Curriculum – NASPE standards (2004)
  • Moving into the Future: National Standards for Physical Education, 2nd Edition
basic concepts in curriculum
Basic Concepts in Curriculum
  • 1. Hidden Curriculum – unintended “learning” not espoused in the overt curriculum. What are some examples?
    • Positive examples:
      • Fitness and physical activity should be a part of everyone’s lifestyle, activity selection should be based upon enjoyment and not peer pressure, support earnest effort regardless of ability,
    • Negative examples:
      • Girls do not belong in sport (all posters are of males), fitness is only done in a weight room, obese students shouldn’t bother, competitive team sports are the only ones worth doing, PE is not as important as athletics, male oriented activities are more important
    • What are some other messages a curriculum might be “saying” without saying a word?
  • 2. Traditional Curriculum – sequence of activities with little/no relation to the standards or standards-based assessment.


basic concepts in curriculum1
Basic Concepts in Curriculum
  • 3. Scope & sequence – Specifies the content of a particular curriculum (scope) and the order in which the curriculum presents that material (sequence)

** = mastery expected, -- = introduced, R = reviewed

basic concepts in curriculum2
Basic Concepts in Curriculum

3. Scope & sequence – Mathematics example

basic concepts in curriculum3




Basic Concepts in Curriculum
  • 4. Alignment
    • Vertical Alignment – Instruction of material over time from one unit or grade level to the next. The key concern is to sequence material such that it is developmentally appropriate and flows from one grade level to the next without gaps or unnecessary repetition (some review is OK).
      • K-12 student reviews of physical education cite alignment as a MAJOR concern. Too often, students are learning the basketball lay-up in the fourth grade and are still being taught the same lay-up in 10th grade.
      • Could you image being taught fractions in fourth grade and still in 10th grade?
      • In addition, school levels should align with each other (elementary, middle, to high school)
basic concepts in curriculum4
Basic Concepts in Curriculum
  • 4. Alignment (continued)
    • Horizontal Alignment – examines the consistency of learning outcomes within a unit or grade level. There should be be a close match between WHAT IS PLANNED, TAUGHT, ASSESSED, AND LEARNED.
      • For example, students are displeased when an instructor tests material not covered in class b/c of the violation of horizontal alignment
basic concepts in curriculum5
5. Curriculum Integration/cross curricular instruction – Incorporating content from other subjects to reinforce and promote the connectedness of material (life is not organized into separate subjects). Physical educators are being required to integrate more math and particularly reading/writing into class due to scores on state exams. Be prepared for this reality, particularly during interviews.

What are some examples for integrating the following subjects into PE (don’t peak at the next slide)?

Language Arts –

Social Studies –

Math –

Science –

Music –

Art –

Other subjects –

Basic Concepts in Curriculum
basic concepts in curriculum6
Basic Concepts in Curriculum
  • Sample Ideas for Cross Curricular Integration
    • Language Arts – journal, describe skill sequences, write-up/create a new game, poly spots with letters, write about wellness figures, sentence/word relay, spell out words with bodies
    • Social Studies – history of the activities, demographics of sport/PA in the nation, new trends, games from different periods, map of US/world (add up laps run to a distance on map), capitals (relay, match states to capitals), olympics, folk/heritage dances
basic concepts in curriculum7
Sample Ideas for Cross Curricular Integration

Math – target heart rates, pedometers, sport statistics, angles of pursuit, probability of success, add up team scores, sport word problems, measurement recording (long jumps), orienteering angles and unit conversions, addition tag, probability with different strategies or techniques, tag with math problems to get free, calculate THR, orienteering with angles and distance (use problems to determine next course)

Science – physics of the body (biomechanics), care of injuries, physiology/anatomy, nutrition effects, study of movement (kinesiology), exercise physiology (what is physiologically happening in the body), nature walk

Basic Concepts in Curriculum
basic concepts in curriculum8
Sample Ideas for Cross Curricular Integration

Music – rhythms, group exercise, motivation, creation of dances, counting beats, stop/start command, activities with songs

Art – wall paintings, PE uniform design, sketches of sport skills being performed at each cue, forming letters with bodies, draw progression of activities, students create topic related bulletin boards

Basic Concepts in Curriculum
approaches to curriculum planning in no particular order
Approaches to Curriculum Planning(in no particular order)

1. Top Down – Decide on the exit outcomes for physical education program and then design down by creating lower-level outcomes for each course (if applicable), each unit, and every lesson plan (stated as objectives). As the outcomes are created for each level down, the program or instructional practices are also created. After the program has been designed, it is “delivered up” meaning educators start teaching the lesson plans whose objectives lead towards the unit outcomes which then help fulfill the program outcomes. This entire approach is known as “design down and deliver up.”

For example, the NASPE outcomes project was partly an attempt to drive curriculum planning by creating generic outcomes for a physical education program.

approaches to curriculum planning in no particular order1
Approaches to Curriculum Planning(in no particular order)

2. Bottom Up – Lesson plans are created and then linked together to form units. The units may be linked together into seasons, categories (net games, invasion games, etc) or some other organizational scheme. In some cases, there is no organizational scheme and units are delivered randomly.

Generally, this approach is less organized, less efficient in terms of managing available instructional days, and results in less student learning. Unfortunately, this approach is somewhat common but due to its limitations, it should be avoided. Really, this approach does not represent or build a curriculum.

approaches to curriculum planning in no particular order2
Approaches to Curriculum Planning(in no particular order)
  • 3. Understanding by Design (UbD) – Focuses on teaching for understanding, particularly linking concepts across the curriculum. Utilizes backwards design where educators examine outcomes in order to design instruction and assessments (similar to top-down).
approaches to curriculum planning in no particular order3
Approaches to Curriculum Planning(in no particular order)
  • 4. Standards based – Relies on clear, measurable standards stating what students should know and be able to do. The curriculum and all related instruction and assessments are aligned with the standards.
    • Generally emphasizes assessment more than the other approaches
    • Units may be organized around standards but this is not common
    • Currently this is the favored approach, it has many similarities to top-down.
approaches to curriculum planning in no particular order4
Approaches to Curriculum Planning(in no particular order)
  • 5. Curriculum Map (or teaching & learning map) – graphical and sequential organization of the curriculum.
    • Examples – online in wikiPE
    • Possible column headings in a curriculum map:
      • Class of activity (coop, team, indiv, adventure), standards, seasons, types of games (invasion, net, tag), domains (P, C, A), dates, activities, equipment, assessments.
    • Weaknesses: Often lacking sufficient detail. May not be practically useful depending on how organized.
curriculum value orientations
Curriculum Value Orientations
  • What is a value orientation?
    • Answer: one’s belief and philosophical perspective on curriculum design or teaching/learning.
    • Why important – Your colleagues may approach the purpose of the curriculum from different perspectives. It is important to recognize differences, respect them, and compromise to create a curriculum of which everyone can be proud. Curriculums which are imposed on others are rarely successful. This can be likened to “building” classroom rules on the first day, where everyone has ownership of the rules.
  • DON’T be a curriculum BULLY
curriculum value orientations1
Curriculum Value Orientations

Types of value orientations:

Disciplinary Mastery – mastering knowledge and performance of the subject matter.

Back to basics, testing, skills

Self Actualization - achievement of one's full potential through individual growth and self-management.

Be all you can be, self esteem, personal growth

Social Reconstruction – curriculum is seen as a vehicle for creating a better society.

Race, gender, occupations, family life, disease prevention, cooperating, sensitivity