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WARM UP. PALYNOLOGY. 1. Who is known as the Father of Genetics? A. Albert Einstein B. Charles Darwin C. Gregor Mendel 2. What are the female reproductive structures of a flower called? A. Stamen B. Pistils C. Pollen 3. Which insect is the most common pollinator?

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warm up

WARM UP

PALYNOLOGY

slide2

1. Who is known as the Father of Genetics?

A. Albert Einstein B. Charles Darwin C. Gregor Mendel

2. What are the female reproductive structures of a flower called?

A. Stamen B. Pistils C. Pollen

3. Which insect is the most common pollinator?

A. House flies B. Butterflies C. Honey Bees

4. What is used to determine the offspring of a genetic cross?

A. Gene Square B. Punnett Square C. Mendel Square

5. Which gene is represented by a capital letter in a genotype?

A. Recessive B. Dominant C. Parental

slide3

Gregor MendelFather of Genetics

1. Who is known as the Father of Genetics?

A. Albert Einstein B. Charles Darwin C. Gregor Mendel

2. What are the female reproductive structures of a flower called?

A. Stamen B. Pistils C. Pollen

3. Which insect is the most common pollinator?

A. House flies B. Butterflies C. Honey Bees

4. What is used to determine the offspring of a genetic cross?

A. Gene Square B. Punnett Square C. Mendel Square

5. Which gene is represented by a capital letter in a genotype?

A. Recessive B. Dominant C. Parental

slide4

FORENSIC

PALYNOLOGY:

POLLEN & SPORES

pollen isn t just yellow dust
Pollen isn’t just yellow dust
  • It comes in a vast array of shapes, sizes and has complex surface patterns and aperture openings.
  • Each plant type produces pollen (or spores) that are quite distinctive from those of other plants.
  • Usually, pollen types of species within a single genus look nearly identical.
pollen isn t just yellow dust1
Pollen isn’t just yellow dust
  • In some plant families there is a great deal of variation among the pollen genera.
palynology
Palynology

Study of pollen, spores, and other microscopic plant bodies collectively called PALYNOMORPHS. e.g. algal cysts (dinoflagellates), algae, fungal spores, etc.

types of microscopy used in forensic palynology
Types of microscopy used in Forensic Palynology

LightSEM(transmitted light) (scanning electron)

TEM: Looks at micro-thin sections of

pollen to determine wall structure

pollen morphology
Pollen morphology
  • Each plant type produces pollen or spores that are distinctive from those of other plants; the uniqueness can sometimes only be seen at the SEM or TEM level.
  • Pollen and spores can usually be identified to the plant family, genus, and sometimes to the species level with LM.
pollen morphology1
Pollen morphology

To differentiate pollen & spores look at

  • Shape
  • Size
  • Aperture type
  • Aperture number
  • Wall structure (layers)
  • Tectate vs. non-tectate
  • Ornamentation type
pollen morphology cont
Pollen morphology cont.

Shape - circular, square, elliptical, triangular, and variations thereof

Aperture type - pores, colpi or combinations of them

pollen morphology2
Pollen morphology

Size - each pollen species has a size range, which often overlaps with other similar pollen types; why size alone is not a valid way to ID pollen grains.

everywhere you look
Everywhere you look

POLLEN & SPORES ARE EVERYWHERE

  • Found in the air over the middle of the oceans
  • Found in the air all over the world including the air over the North and South Poles
  • Found in rivers, lakes, seas, and at the bottom of the oceans
  • Found inside buildings, in cars, on and inside animals, on and inside people, in soils, and rocks up to 2.2 billion years old
pollen print
Pollen Print

Each location produces a

unique “pollen print” that

is often so specific that it

can be used to identify that

precise location.

pollen production and dispersal
Pollen Production and Dispersal
  • During an average spring or summer day in most areas each cubic meter of air contains about 1,000-20,000 pollen & spores.
  • The average adult inhales about 10 m3 of air a day, more if doing physical exercise, pollen is trapped in nasal passages, can be a key to the season of year.
  • During peak pollination periods there can be up to 100,000 pollen grains/m3 of air.
slide22

Flower Power

T. Trimpe 2010

slide23

Flower Basics

1. Label the parts of the flower.

“Our Flowering World”

Petals

Stigma

Pistil

Anther

Style

Stamen

Filament

Ovule

Sepal

Ovary

Image: http://www.smithlifescience.com/SciFlowerDiagramBlank.jpg

slide24

Pollinators

Ants

Bats

Bees

Moths

Birds

ButterfliesFlies

Beetles

True Bugs

Wasps

Did you know? Honey bees are the most common pollinators. What insect comes in second place?

What is the difference between self-pollination and cross-pollination?

SELF-POLLINATION: POLLEN FROM A FLOWER LANDS ON THE PISTIL OF THE SAME FLOWER OR A FLOWER ON THE SAME PLANT.

CROSS-POLLINATION: POLLEN FROM A FLOWER LANDS ON THE PISTIL OF THE A FLOWER ON A DIFFERENT PLANT.