The Age of Jackson Chapter 3
Election of 1824 • One-party politics: in effect no party • The candidates • John Quincy Adams, Sec. of State • Andrew Jackson, Hero of New Orleans • William Crawford, Sec. of Treasury • Henry Clay, Speaker of the House • John C. Calhoun, Sec. of War • All Republicans: more about personalities and sectional allegiances than issues
The Election of 1824 • Jackson won the popular vote and the electoral vote: thrown into House of Representatives • Charges of “Corrupt Bargain” (Clay & Adams)
John Quincy Adams • One of the ablest men, hardest workers, and finest intellectuals ever in the White House. • Tried to promote not only manufacturing and agriculture, but also the arts, literature, and science. • But he lacked the common touch and refused to play the game of politics. • Most found him cold and tactless. • Could not build any popular support for his programs.
John Quincy Adams • Also, the election had united his enemies and was creating a new party system • Adams, Clay, and the minority became National-Republicans • Jackson and the majority became the Democratic-Republicans (later just Democrats)
First Third Party:The Anti-Masons • The Freemasons (or Masons) were a secret fraternal group. • Most Mason were wealthy businessmen. • When a former member threatened to write a book revealing the Mason’s secrets, he was murdered. • A political party formed devoted to Anti-Masonry (arousing public opinion against the Masons). It would eventually be absorbed by the Whigs.
Election of 1828:Age of the Common Man? • Democratization • The ending of property qualifications had greatly increased the number of men qualified to vote. • 4 times as many men voted in 1828 than in 1824 • Individuals should have an equal opportunity to better themselves and should be granted political rights and privileges. • All adult white males could vote (no blacks, women, Indians). Jackson did not stress social equality. Wanted everyone to have an opportunity to succeed or fail. Not equality of results.
Election of 1828:Acceptance of Parties • Professional politicians • Politics no longer just for the wealthy. • Enough jobs in government to support full-time careers in politics. • Politics became mass entertainment • Campaign hoopla frequently overshadowed issues. • Parades, massive rallies, and barbecues were used to stir voters, and providing free alcohol became an almost universal campaign tactic. • The election marked the beginning of politics as Americans have practiced it ever since, with two disciplined national parties actively competing for votes, emphasizing personalities over issues.
Election of 1828 • Jackson wins by a comfortable margin. • Electoral vote: 178 to 83 • The election of Andrew Jackson signaled a new era in American History. • The maturing republic now included 24 states and 13 million people. • Many of these people were on the move during the 19th century, heading West.
Jacksonin Office • President of the People: Inauguration • Jackson’s character • Jackson was the first president from west of the Appalachians. He was a man of action, and though he had a quick mind, he had little use for learning. • His troops named him Old Hickory out of respect for his toughness, but that strength sometimes became arrogance, and he could be vindictive and a bully. He was not a man to provoke, and indeed had a reputation for fighting and dueling. • Jackson was a shrewd politician. He knew how to manipulate men and could be affable or abusive as the occasion demanded. He also displayed a keen sense of public opinion, reading the shifting national mood better than any of his contemporaries.
Jackson in Office • The Spoils system • Rotation in federal office holders. • Introduced as a way of rewarding political supporters. • Political rivalry between Martin Van Buren and John C. Calhoun • Peggy Eaton Affair • Jackson is drawn closer to Martin Van Buren • Racial Prejudice in the Jacksonian Era • Attitude toward blacks • Planter who owned nearly 100 slaves • Attorney General Robert Taney • Blacks were “a separate and degraded people.”
Jackson & American Indians • Indian Removal Act of 1830 • Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, Seminole • Trail of Tears (1838) • Thousand-mile trip • 12,000 Cherokees • Only 8,000 reached Oklahoma
The Bank War • The National Bank and the Panic of 1819 • Nicholas Biddle tries to recharter • Clash between Jackson & Biddle • Jackson’s veto • Election of 1832: The Bank Destroyed • Removal of the deposits • “Pet banks” or state banks • Will lead to economic chaos
The Nullification Crisis • The Growing Crisis in South Carolina • Denmark Vesey’s slave insurrection of 1822 • Blacks outnumbered whites • Need for stronger constitutional protection of slavery • Tariff of Abominations (1828) • The constitutional doctrine of implied powers was used to justify higher protective tariffs and they were afraid that it would soon be used to end slavery.
The Nullification Crisis • V.P. John C. Calhoun • South Carolina Exposition and Protest (1828) • Theory of Nullification (repeal a federal law) • Webster-Hayne Debate (1830) • Minority rights versus majority rule
The Nullification Crisis:Compact Theory (states’ rights) • The Union was a compact between sovereign states. • Each state had the right to nullify any federal law that exceeded the powers granted to Congress under the Constitution. • The law would then become null and void in that state. • Congress could either repeal the law or propose a constitutional amendment expressly giving it the power in question. • If the amendment was ratified, the nullifying state could either accept the decision or exercise its ultimate right as a sovereign state and secede from the Union.
The Nullification Crisis:Nationalists’ Theory (Union) • Senator Daniel Webster of Massachusetts replied sharply that the Union was not a compact of sovereign states. • The people, and not the states, he argued, had created the Constitution. • The federal government did not merely act as the agent of the states but had sovereign powers in those areas where it had been delegated responsibility. • The doctrine of judicial review gave the Supreme Court authority to determine the meaning of the Constitution.
The Nullification Crisis • Tariff of 1832 • South Carolina’s response • Declared the tariffs of 1828 and 1832 “null, void, and no law, nor binding upon this state, its officers or citizens.” • Proclamation on Nullification (1832) • Idea of a perpetual Union • Force Bill • Jackson ordered armed forces to Charleston and privately threatened to hang Calhoun. • Violence seemed imminent until Clay negotiated a compromise.
The Nullification Crisis • Compromise of 1833 • Tariffs were gradually lowered. • South Carolina dropped nullification. • South lost its dominance to North and West. • The controversy convinced many southerners that they were becoming a permanent minority. • As that feeling of isolation grew, it was not nullification but the threat of secession that ultimately became the South’s primary weapon.
Accomplishments Enlarged the power of the presidency “The President is the direct representative of the American people” – only responsible to the people, not Congress. Converted the veto into an effective presidential power. The veto would help presidents shape legislation in Congress. Politicalparties seen as a positive good JacksonLeaves Office
JacksonLeaves Office • Failures • Growing social stratification • Gap between rich and poor visibly widened • Jackson’s financial policies and lack of a national bank helped lead to the Panic of 1837, which was a serious depression that lasted until 1843.
Van Buren • V.P. Martin Van Buren wins in 1836 • Panic of 1837 • Blamed on the Democrats • “Van Ruin’s” Depression • Election of 1840 “Log Cabin and Hard Cider” • William Henry Harrison (Whig) • “Tippecanoe and Tyler too” • “Van! Van! Is a Used-up Man! • The Whigs’ Triumph
Significant Events 1822 Denmark Vesey conspiracy 1824 Jackson finishes first in presidential race 1825 House elects John Quincy Adams president 1827 Cherokee adopt written constitution 1828 Tariff of Abominations; Jackson elected 1830 Webster-Hayne debates 1830-1838 Indian removal 1832 Jackson’s Proclamation on Nullification 1833 Jackson removes deposits from Bank of US 1834 Whig Party organized 1838 Trail of Tears 1840 Harrison elected president