What Is Motivation? • Motivation: the willingness to exert high levels of effort to reach organizational goals, conditioned by the effort’s ability to satisfy some individual need
Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic Motivation • Intrinsic Motivation is seen in behavior that is performed for its own sake or from the sense of accomplishment and achievement derived from doing the work itself (e.g., playing music) • Extrinsic Motivation comes from consequences of behavior - material/social rewards or avoiding punishment - and not from the behavior itself (e.g., trash collection) Fundamental distinction. Which one do we want in organizations?
Maslow’s Hierarchy Of Needs Self- Actualization Esteem Social Safety Physiological Research does not support Maslow's model as such, but it highlights that there are different needs that people try to satisfy.
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs • Physiological needs: • food, drink, shelter. • Safety needs: • security and protection from physical and emotional harm. • Social needs: • affection, belongingness, acceptance, and friendship. • Esteem needs: • internal esteem factors such as self-respect and achievement as well as external esteem factors such as status and recognition. • Self-actualization needs: • growth, achieving one’s potential; the drive to become what one is capable of becoming.
McClelland’s Needs Theory • Need for achievement (nAch) – • drive to excel, to achieve in relation to a set of standards, and to strive to succeed • Need for affiliation (nAff): • Desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationships • Need for power (nPow): • Need to make others behave in a way that they would not have behaved otherwise - Personalized power – power in pursuit of own goals + Socialized power – power channeled towards constructive improvement of organizations and societies • Best managers tend to be high in the need for power and low in the need for affiliation • Need for achievement may help, or may not
Reinforcement Theory: Link actions and rewards to motivate • Basis: Motivation is driven by external consequences, especially when consequences tightly linked to actions • Four types of reinforcers (consequences): • Positive reinforcement – Rewarding behavior with something pleasant • Negative reinforcement – Rewarding behavior with the elimination of something unpleasant • Punishment – Penalize undesirable behavior • Extinction – Eliminating any reinforcement for undesirable behavior. What reinforcers are most effective? What provides positive reinforcement, other than money?
Reinforcers in depth • Positive reinforcement • Powerful. Use whenever possible. • Punishment • Can cause resentment, loss of self-respect, desire to retaliate • Focus on behavior, not the person • Do it immediately, and privately • Negative reinforcement • Similar risks to punishment • Negative reinforcement = remove something unpleasant in return for functional behavior • Punishment = administer something unpleasant in response to dysfunctional behavior
Expectancy Theory Motivation derives from an “Expectancy Chain” -linkages between effort, performance, and rewards: Expectancy (effort-performance linkage) Instrumentality (performance-reward linkage) Valence (reward-goal linkage) attractiveness / importance of the potential organizational outcome/reward Increase motivation by strengthening linkages Most comprehensive, widely accepted motivational theory Why do I say “Expectancy Chain?”
Expectancy Theory Model:the “Expectancy Chain” Individual Effort Individual Performance Organizational Rewards Individual Goals Expectancy: Effort-performance linkage Valence: Attractiveness Instrumentality: Performance-reward linkage
Example 1 – Expectancy Theory • Jason, an accountant with a large auditing firm, believes that if he works hard during tax season he will process enough accounts to be eligible for a bonus that he would desire very highly. However, even if he reaches the bonus-level quota, he does not think his firm will actually pay out the bonus as promised. As a result, he is not motivated to work hard. Which component of the “expectancy chain” accounts for his low motivation?
Goal-Setting Theory: building commitment to organizational goals • Three basic steps • Set Goals that are motivating • Gain acceptance and commitment to goals • Feedback on progress maintains motivation • Increases: • Effort and persistence • Alignment with organizational goals Most important, valid, and useful single approach to motivating performance
Eg Guidelines for Job Redesign Goal-Setting Theory
Equity Theory or“Mommy, Johnny’s piece of candy is bigger than mine” Equity Theory: Motivation is influenced by social comparison & perceptions of fairness: You compare your situation to a referent (similar) individual Equity = your “outcome to input ratio” matches the referent’s. Overpayment inequity = your ratio is worse (higher) Underpayment inequity = your ratio is better (lower) Inequity motivates most people to restore equity
Decrease inputs Increase outcomes O O --- = --- I I Modify comparison Distort reality Leave the situation Different ways to bring Outcomes (O) into balance with Inputs (I)* * For underpayment inequity