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Motivation. What Is Motivation?. Motivation: the willingness to exert high levels of effort to reach organizational goals, conditioned by the effort’s ability to satisfy some individual need. Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic Motivation.

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what is motivation
What Is Motivation?
  • Motivation: the willingness to exert high levels of effort to reach organizational goals, conditioned by the effort’s ability to satisfy some individual need
intrinsic vs extrinsic motivation
Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic Motivation
  • Intrinsic Motivation is seen in behavior that is performed for its own sake or from the sense of accomplishment and achievement derived from doing the work itself (e.g., playing music)
  • Extrinsic Motivation comes from consequences of behavior - material/social rewards or avoiding punishment - and not from the behavior itself (e.g., trash collection)

Fundamental distinction. Which one do we want in organizations?

maslow s hierarchy of needs
Maslow’s Hierarchy Of Needs







Research does not

support Maslow's

model as such, but

it highlights that

there are different

needs that people

try to satisfy.

maslow s hierarchy of needs1
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
  • Physiological needs:
    • food, drink, shelter.
  • Safety needs:
    • security and protection from physical and emotional harm.
  • Social needs:
    • affection, belongingness, acceptance, and friendship.
  • Esteem needs:
    • internal esteem factors such as self-respect and achievement as well as external esteem factors such as status and recognition.
  • Self-actualization needs:
    • growth, achieving one’s potential; the drive to become what one is capable of becoming.
mcclelland s needs theory
McClelland’s Needs Theory
  • Need for achievement (nAch) –
    • drive to excel, to achieve in relation to a set of standards, and to strive to succeed
  • Need for affiliation (nAff):
    • Desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationships
  • Need for power (nPow):
    • Need to make others behave in a way that they would not have behaved otherwise

- Personalized power – power in pursuit of own goals

+ Socialized power – power channeled towards constructive

improvement of organizations and societies

  • Best managers tend to be high in the need for power and low in the need for affiliation
    • Need for achievement may help, or may not
reinforcement theory link actions and rewards to motivate
Reinforcement Theory: Link actions and rewards to motivate
  • Basis: Motivation is driven by external consequences, especially when consequences tightly linked to actions
  • Four types of reinforcers (consequences):
    • Positive reinforcement – Rewarding behavior with something pleasant
    • Negative reinforcement – Rewarding behavior with the elimination of something unpleasant
    • Punishment – Penalize undesirable behavior
    • Extinction – Eliminating any reinforcement for undesirable behavior.

What reinforcers are most effective?

What provides positive reinforcement, other than money?

reinforcers in depth
Reinforcers in depth
  • Positive reinforcement
    • Powerful. Use whenever possible.
  • Punishment
    • Can cause resentment, loss of self-respect, desire to retaliate
    • Focus on behavior, not the person
    • Do it immediately, and privately
  • Negative reinforcement
    • Similar risks to punishment
    • Negative reinforcement = remove something unpleasant in return for functional behavior
    • Punishment = administer something unpleasant in response to dysfunctional behavior
expectancy theory
Expectancy Theory

Motivation derives from an “Expectancy Chain” -linkages between effort, performance, and rewards:

Expectancy (effort-performance linkage)

Instrumentality (performance-reward linkage)

Valence (reward-goal linkage) attractiveness / importance of the potential organizational outcome/reward

Increase motivation by strengthening linkages

Most comprehensive, widely accepted motivational theory

Why do I say “Expectancy Chain?”

expectancy theory model the expectancy chain
Expectancy Theory Model:the “Expectancy Chain”










Effort-performance linkage




Performance-reward linkage

example 1 expectancy theory
Example 1 – Expectancy Theory
  • Jason, an accountant with a large auditing firm, believes that if he works hard during tax season he will process enough accounts to be eligible for a bonus that he would desire very highly. However, even if he reaches the bonus-level quota, he does not think his firm will actually pay out the bonus as promised. As a result, he is not motivated to work hard. Which component of the “expectancy chain” accounts for his low motivation?
goal setting theory building commitment to organizational goals
Goal-Setting Theory: building commitment to organizational goals
  • Three basic steps
    • Set Goals that are motivating
    • Gain acceptance and commitment to goals
    • Feedback on progress maintains motivation
  • Increases:
    • Effort and persistence
    • Alignment with organizational goals

Most important, valid, and useful single

approach to motivating performance

equity theory or mommy johnny s piece of candy is bigger than mine
Equity Theory or“Mommy, Johnny’s piece of candy is bigger than mine”

Equity Theory: Motivation is influenced by social comparison & perceptions of fairness:

You compare your situation to a referent (similar) individual

Equity = your “outcome to input ratio” matches the referent’s.

Overpayment inequity = your ratio is worse (higher)

Underpayment inequity = your ratio is better (lower)

Inequity motivates most people to restore equity

different ways to bring outcomes o into balance with inputs i






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Leave the


Different ways to bring Outcomes (O) into balance with Inputs (I)*

* For underpayment inequity