Motivation. What Is Motivation?. Motivation: the willingness to exert high levels of effort to reach organizational goals, conditioned by the effort’s ability to satisfy some individual need. Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic Motivation.
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Fundamental distinction. Which one do we want in organizations?
Research does not
model as such, but
it highlights that
there are different
needs that people
try to satisfy.
- Personalized power – power in pursuit of own goals
+ Socialized power – power channeled towards constructive
improvement of organizations and societies
What reinforcers are most effective?
What provides positive reinforcement, other than money?
Motivation derives from an “Expectancy Chain” -linkages between effort, performance, and rewards:
Expectancy (effort-performance linkage)
Instrumentality (performance-reward linkage)
Valence (reward-goal linkage) attractiveness / importance of the potential organizational outcome/reward
Increase motivation by strengthening linkages
Most comprehensive, widely accepted motivational theory
Why do I say “Expectancy Chain?”
Most important, valid, and useful single
approach to motivating performance
Equity Theory: Motivation is influenced by social comparison & perceptions of fairness:
You compare your situation to a referent (similar) individual
Equity = your “outcome to input ratio” matches the referent’s.
Overpayment inequity = your ratio is worse (higher)
Underpayment inequity = your ratio is better (lower)
Inequity motivates most people to restore equity
--- = ---
situationDifferent ways to bring Outcomes (O) into balance with Inputs (I)*
* For underpayment inequity