Memory I Long-term memory & Encoding. Are there multiple LTM memory systems?. How do you learn a new skill? How do you learn a new fact? How about learning about an event? Is there one long-term memory (LTM) system for these types of knowledge or are there multiple LTM systems?.
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LONG TERM MEMORY
(skills & habits)
(classical & operant conditioning)
Medial Temporal Lobe
past experiences influence perceptions, thoughts & actions without awareness that any information from past is accessed
conscious access to info from the past
(“I remember that..” )
-> involves conscious recollection
Look at the following words. I will test your memory for these words in various ways.
dissociation suggest different systems for implicit and explicit memory systems
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Graf et al. (1984).
(Butters & Cermak, 1986)
Henry Gustav Molaison
improvement in H.M. for mirror tracing task (without conscious recollection of previous training episodes)
the medial temporal lobes are not necessary for all types of long-term memory.
Declarative memory (memory for information/knowledge, e.g. episodic & semantic memory)
Procedural memory (e.g., how to ride a bike)
Implicit memories (using past information possibly without being aware of it)
Levels of processing effect:
Deeper levels of processing (e.g., emphasizing meaning) tend to lead to better recall.
(Craik & Lockhart, 1972)
(Related to “transfer appropriate processing”)
Memory experiment with deep-sea divers
Godden & Baddeley (1975, 1980)
mood primes certain memory contents
Spaced repetitions better for long term retention.
Massed better for short term retention.