Introduction and overview of digital crime and digital terrorism
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Introduction and Overview of Digital Crime and Digital Terrorism. Chapter 1. Introduction. Digital Crime: Viruses destroying data Viruses shutting down the internet computer thieves stealing credit card and social security numbers identity theft laundering money

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Introduction l.jpg
Introduction Terrorism

  • Digital Crime:

    • Viruses destroying data

    • Viruses shutting down the internet

    • computer thieves stealing credit card and social security numbers

    • identity theft

    • laundering money

    • using the internet to coordinate terrorist attacks. These are endemic to the growing problems of digital crime and digital terrorism.

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Historical Perspective Terrorism

  • The first electronic computer was completed in 1945, and the first long distance electronic communication on the internet was sent in 1969.

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New Threats in the Information Age Terrorism

  • Traditional criminal acts:

    • most prominently the production and distribution of child pornography

    • financial crimes

    • information and corporate espionage exploitation

    • stalking

    • identity theft.

  • In 1997, fraudulent VISA transactions were reported at $828 million.

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The Cost of Digital Crime Terrorism

  • The Intellectual Property Section of the U.S. Department of Justice estimates cybercrime costs as high as $10 billion annually.

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Increases in Cybervictimization Terrorism

  • Vulnerability from within an organization is the most dangerous and poses the most serious threat.

    • One study estimated that 90% of economic computer crimes were committed by employees of the victimized companies.

    • Recent studies in North America and Europe determined that 73% of the risk to computer security is from internal sources while only 23% is attributable to external sources.

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Types of Computer Crime Terrorism

  • Computer as a target

  • Computer as an instrument of the crime

  • Computer as incidental to crime

  • Crimes associated with the prevalence of computers

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The Computer as a Target Terrorism

  • Data alteration and denial directly targets the computer by attacking the useful information stored or processed by the computer.

  • The primary difference between data alteration and network intrusion is the intent of the intruder.

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What is the value of the loss? Terrorism

  • Kevin Mitnick (poster boy of hackers) – the prosecution of Mitnick relied on estimates of the value of software he downloaded but did not alter.

  • FBI directed the companies to estimate the total development costs of the software.

  • Since Mitnick did not deprive the companies of the product of their research and development, it seems that the actual economic harm caused would be less than the total cost.

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The Computer as an Instrument of a Crime Terrorism

  • Using the computer as the instrument of the crime means that the computer is used to gain some other criminal objective.

  • Theft is the taking of property with the intent of permanently depriving the owner of their property or service.

  • Market-sensitive proprietary information, financial information, trade secrets, process technology information, human resources information, customer information, information products, transitory information, and security information can all have value to the owner.

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Is it theft? Terrorism

  • Is copying the data a loss to the owner?

  • The owner either maintains confidence in the integrity of the information or controls the distribution of the information to maintain its value.

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The Salami Slice TerrorismScam(Real Assets)

  • The salami slice technique is a money crime; it is an automated means of stealing assets from a large number of transactions. In the round down salami technique, the computer is used to round calculated dollar amounts down to the nearest cent.

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Shopping Cart Fraud and Pyramid Schemes Terrorism

  • Shopping cart fraud is an example of consumer fraud against a business. Once purchases are selected, the computer criminal saves a copy of the purchase page and alters the prices.

  • Pyramid schemes have found a new source of legitimacy with professional-appearing Web sites and official-sounding Web addresses.

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The Computer as Incidental to a Crime Terrorism

  • The computer is not the primary instrument of the crime; it simply facilitates it. These crimes include

    • money laundering,

    • criminal enterprise,

    • recipes

    • child pornography, and

    • luring victims into compromising situations.

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Crimes Associated with the Prevalence of Computers Terrorism

  • Large-scale software piracy began in Asia.

  • Three major credit reporting bureaus control the information on all persons applying for credit in the United States: Equifax, Trans Union, and Experian.

  • These companies allow anyone with a name and Social Security number to access credit histories.