1859 1914 Indian Wars & Industrial Supremacy
OBJECTIVES • How white culture and federal policy worked to destroy Indian culture in the West. • The reasons for the rapid industrial development of the United States in the late nineteenth century. • The role of the individual entrepreneur in the development of particular industries. • The changes that were taking place in American business organization. • The ways in which classical economics and certain ideas of Darwin were used to justify and defend the new industrial capitalism. • The critics of the new industrial capitalism and the solutions they proposed. • The condition of immigrants women and children in the workforce. • The rise of organized labor on a national federated basis. • The reasons why organized labor generally failed in its efforts to achieve its objectives.
The Conquest of the Far West • The Dispersal of the Tribes • White Tribal Policies Before 1860: - Cant of Sovereignty - Conquest of Nations
The Indian Wars of 1850-1900 • The Sioux wars (1854-90) • The Southern Plains (1860-79) • The Nez Perce War (1877) • Navaho Conflicts (1846-64) • Apache Warfare (1861-1900).
Tucson (Camp Grant) Massacre April 30, 1871
SAND CREEK MASSACRE November 29, 1864
INDIAN HUNTING IN CALIFORNIA 1850-1860 – 5000 Killed
The Conquest of the Far West • The Dispersal of the Tribes • The Dawes Act (1887) • Gradual elimination of Tribal Ownership • Separation of Tribes • Americanization of Indians
Debating the Past: THE “FRONTIER” AND THE WEST • 1893 – Frederick Jackson Turner • “The Significance of the Frontier in American History” • Roy Allen Billington • 1970s + Richard White / Nelson Limerich • 1980 + David Weber: • Borderlands not Frontier Chief Little Crow 1851
Sources of Industrial Growth • Industrial Technologies 1850s – Sewing Machine 1868 - Typewriter 1870 - Electricity 1886 – Transatlantic Telegraph 1880s- Telephone
Sources of Industrial Growth • The Technology of Iron and Steel Production • Oil & Coal
Industrial Supremacy • Transportation Revolution • The Airplane (1904) • Automobile (1906) • Railroad Expansion: 1860-1890*
Sources of Industrial Growth Railroad Expansion
Industrial Supremacy • Rise of Corporate Supremacy • Laws of Incorporation (1830s/1840s) • Corporate Personhood (1886)*
CORPORATE PERSONHOOD 1886, Supreme Court Santa Clara County vs. Southern Pacific Railroad Personhood made corporations persons with constitutional protections under the XIVAmendment Supreme Court Justice Hugo Black in a 1938 opinion stated: "I do notbelieve the word `person' in the XIV Amendment includes corporations"
Industrial Supremacy • Social Darwanism • Survival of the Fittest • William Graham Sumner (Yale) • Capitalism and Its Critics • The Gospel of Wealth • Andrew Carnegie (1901) • Horatio Alger \
Capitalism and Its Critics • Alternative Visions • Lester Frank Ward • Daniel De Leon (1870 founded Socialist Workers Party • Edward Bellamy – Looking Backward (1888) • The Problems of Monopoly • Price Fixing • Unstable economics • Rise of Wealth
The Ordeal of the Worker • The Immigrant Work Force 1865-1915: 25 Million - New Ethnic Groups Inspection room at Ellis Island, NY
The Ordeal of the Worker • Wages and Working Conditions • Low Wages: $400 – 500 a Year • Long Hours: 10 hr. day, 6 days per Week • Lack of safety • Women and Children at Work 1900: 20 % of Workforce 1.7 million children
Emerging Unionization • “Molly Maguires • The Knights of Labor • Wage system Vs. Cooperative System • Terence Powderly • The AFL • Samuel Gompers • Eight Hour workday
Episodes of Industrial Violence in U.S. History: 1820s-1840s: Canal workers in the northeast 1862-77: Molly Maguires, Pennsylvania 1863: New York City draft riots 1874: Tompkins Square Riot, New York City 1877: The Great Railroad Strike 1885: Massacre of Chinese, Rock Springs 1886: Haymarket, Chicago 1889: Las Gorras Blancas, New Mexico 1891: Anti-Italian Riot in New Orleans 1892: Homestead, Pennsylvania; Couer d'Alene, Idaho; Cripple Creek, Colorado 1894: Pullman, Chicago; Coxey's Army. 1896: Leadville, Colorado 1897: Lattimer, Pennsylvania
1901: Telluride, Colorado 1902: Pennsylvania anthracite strike 1909: McKees Rocks, Pennsylvania 1910: Dynamiting of Los Angeles Times1912: Lawrence, Massachusetts 1913: Patterson, New Jersey; 1913-14: Ludlow, Colorado 1916: Everett Massacre 1917: Food riots; resistance to conscription in the Southwest; Bisbee, Arizona; Espionage and Sedition Acts; Green Corn Rebellion 1919: Strikes in steel industry, Seattle, etc; anti-Socialist May Day Riot in Cleveland; Centralia; Red Scare; Sacco and Vanzetti
1920: Wall Street bombing 1922: Herrin Massacre; miners' strikes, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, West Virginia 1929: Gastonia, North Carolina 1932: Dearborn Massacre; attack on the "Bonus Army", Washington D.C. 1933: Steel strike, Pennsylvania; cotton strike, Pixley and Arvin, California 1934: Strikes by Californian fruit and vegetable workers; automobile industry strike, Toledo, Ohio, San Francisco General Strike; teamsters' Strike, 1937: Sit-down strikes in automobile industry, Michigan; steel strike and Memorial Day Massacre, Michigan
Industrial Supremacy • The Ordeal of the Worker • The Haymarket Riot (May 1, 1886) • The Homestead Strike (1892) • The Pullman Strike (1894) • Eugene V. Debs • Federal involvement Inside the Homestead Plant (Library of Congress)
The Ordeal of the Worker • Expanding Industrial economy • Under-representation • Shifting labor force • Ethnic Division • Why No Socialism in America?