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1859. 1914. Indian Wars & Industrial Supremacy. OBJECTIVES How white culture and federal policy worked to destroy Indian culture in the West. The reasons for the rapid industrial development of the United States in the late nineteenth century.

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Indian wars industrial supremacy

1859

1914

Indian Wars &

Industrial Supremacy


Indian wars

  • OBJECTIVES

  • How white culture and federal policy worked to destroy Indian culture in the West.

  • The reasons for the rapid industrial development of the United States in the late nineteenth century.

  • The role of the individual entrepreneur in the development of particular industries.

  • The changes that were taking place in American business organization.

  • The ways in which classical economics and certain ideas of Darwin were used to justify and defend the new industrial capitalism.

  • The critics of the new industrial capitalism and the solutions they proposed.

  • The condition of immigrants women and children in the workforce.

  • The rise of organized labor on a national federated basis.

  • The reasons why organized labor generally failed in its efforts to achieve its objectives.


The conquest of the far west
The Conquest of the Far West

  • The Dispersal of the Tribes

    • White Tribal Policies

Before 1860:

- Cant of Sovereignty

- Conquest of Nations



Indian wars

  • The Indian Wars of 1850-1900

  • The Sioux wars (1854-90)

  • The Southern Plains (1860-79)

  • The Nez Perce War (1877)

  • Navaho Conflicts (1846-64)

  • Apache Warfare (1861-1900).



Indian wars

SAND CREEK MASSACRE

November 29, 1864


Indian wars

INDIAN HUNTING IN CALIFORNIA

1850-1860 – 5000 Killed


The conquest of the far west1
The Conquest of the Far West

  • The Dispersal of the Tribes

    • The Dawes Act (1887)

      • Gradual elimination of Tribal Ownership

      • Separation of Tribes

      • Americanization of Indians


Debating the past the frontier and the west
Debating the Past: THE “FRONTIER” AND THE WEST

  • 1893 – Frederick Jackson Turner

  • “The Significance of the Frontier in American History”

  • Roy Allen Billington

  • 1970s + Richard White / Nelson Limerich

  • 1980 + David Weber:

  • Borderlands not Frontier

Chief Little Crow 1851


Sources of industrial growth
Sources of Industrial Growth

  • Industrial Technologies

    1850s – Sewing Machine

    1868 - Typewriter

    1870 - Electricity

    1886 – Transatlantic Telegraph

    1880s- Telephone


Sources of industrial growth1
Sources of Industrial Growth

  • The Technology of Iron and Steel Production

  • Oil & Coal


Industrial supremacy
Industrial Supremacy

  • Transportation Revolution

    • The Airplane (1904)

    • Automobile (1906)

    • Railroad Expansion: 1860-1890*


Indian wars

Sources of Industrial Growth

Railroad Expansion


Industrial supremacy1
Industrial Supremacy

  • Rise of Corporate Supremacy

    • Laws of Incorporation (1830s/1840s)

    • Corporate Personhood (1886)*


Indian wars

CORPORATE PERSONHOOD

1886, Supreme Court

Santa Clara County vs. Southern Pacific Railroad

Personhood made corporations persons with

constitutional protections under the XIVAmendment

Supreme Court Justice Hugo Black in a 1938 opinion

stated: "I do notbelieve the word `person' in the

XIV Amendment includes corporations"


Industrial supremacy2
Industrial Supremacy

  • Social Darwanism

    • Survival of the Fittest

    • William Graham Sumner (Yale)

  • Capitalism and Its Critics

    • The Gospel of Wealth

    • Andrew Carnegie (1901)

    • Horatio Alger

\


Capitalism and its critics
Capitalism and Its Critics

  • Alternative Visions

    • Lester Frank Ward

    • Daniel De Leon (1870 founded Socialist Workers Party

    • Edward Bellamy – Looking Backward (1888)

  • The Problems of Monopoly

    • Price Fixing

    • Unstable economics

    • Rise of Wealth


The ordeal of the worker
The Ordeal of the Worker

  • The Immigrant Work Force

    1865-1915: 25 Million - New Ethnic Groups

Inspection room at Ellis Island, NY


The ordeal of the worker1
The Ordeal of the Worker

  • Wages and Working Conditions

    • Low Wages: $400 – 500 a Year

    • Long Hours: 10 hr. day, 6 days per Week

    • Lack of safety

  • Women and Children at Work

    1900: 20 % of Workforce

    1.7 million children


Emerging unionization
Emerging Unionization

  • “Molly Maguires

  • The Knights of Labor

    • Wage system Vs. Cooperative System

    • Terence Powderly

  • The AFL

    • Samuel Gompers

    • Eight Hour workday


Indian wars

Episodes of Industrial Violence in U.S. History:

1820s-1840s: Canal workers in the northeast 1862-77: Molly Maguires, Pennsylvania 1863: New York City draft riots 1874: Tompkins Square Riot, New York City 1877: The Great Railroad Strike 1885: Massacre of Chinese, Rock Springs 1886: Haymarket, Chicago 1889: Las Gorras Blancas, New Mexico 1891: Anti-Italian Riot in New Orleans 1892: Homestead, Pennsylvania;

Couer d'Alene, Idaho; Cripple Creek, Colorado 1894: Pullman, Chicago; Coxey's Army. 1896: Leadville, Colorado 1897: Lattimer, Pennsylvania


Indian wars

1901: Telluride, Colorado 1902: Pennsylvania anthracite strike 1909: McKees Rocks, Pennsylvania 1910: Dynamiting of Los Angeles Times1912: Lawrence, Massachusetts 1913: Patterson, New Jersey; 1913-14: Ludlow, Colorado 1916: Everett Massacre 1917: Food riots; resistance to conscription in the Southwest; Bisbee, Arizona; Espionage and Sedition Acts; Green Corn Rebellion 1919: Strikes in steel industry, Seattle, etc; anti-Socialist May Day Riot in Cleveland; Centralia; Red Scare; Sacco and Vanzetti


Indian wars

1920: Wall Street bombing 1922: Herrin Massacre; miners' strikes, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, West Virginia 1929: Gastonia, North Carolina 1932: Dearborn Massacre; attack on the "Bonus Army", Washington D.C. 1933: Steel strike, Pennsylvania; cotton strike, Pixley and Arvin, California 1934: Strikes by Californian fruit and vegetable workers; automobile industry strike, Toledo, Ohio,        San Francisco General Strike; teamsters' Strike, 1937: Sit-down strikes in automobile industry, Michigan; steel strike and Memorial Day Massacre, Michigan


Industrial supremacy3
Industrial Supremacy

  • The Ordeal of the Worker

    • The Haymarket Riot (May 1, 1886)

    • The Homestead Strike (1892)

    • The Pullman Strike (1894)

      • Eugene V. Debs

      • Federal involvement

Inside the Homestead Plant (Library of Congress)


The ordeal of the worker2
The Ordeal of the Worker

  • Expanding Industrial economy

  • Under-representation

  • Shifting labor force

  • Ethnic Division

  • Why No Socialism in America?