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  1. 1650 1660 1640 1690 1670 1680 1700 London Fire (1666) Eng. Civ. Wars end (1648) England Stuart monarchy restored (1661) Plague hits London (1665) Glorious Revolution (1688) Eng. Civ. Wars begin (1642) Cromwell’s dictatorship (1649-58) James II Begins reign (1685) War of League of Augsburg (1688-97) 3rd Anglo- Dutch Naval War (1672-4) 2nd Anglo-Dutch Naval War (1665-7) 1st Anglo Dutch- Naval War (1652-4) Dutch Republic William III Marries Mary Stuart (1674) War of Sp. Succession (1700-13) Dutch indep. (1648) France 30 Yrs. War ends (1648) Mazarin dies & Louis XIV begins his active reign (1661) War of League of Augsburg (1688-97) Louis XIII dies & Mazarin’s Regency begins (1643) Louis XIV dies (1715) Louis XIV revokes Edict of Nantes (1685) Dutch War 1672-8) Fronde (1648-53) N. War b/w Sweden, Prussia & Poland (1655-60) Fred-Wm The Great Elector Starts his reign (1640) War of Sp. Succession (1700-13) Prussia Fred-Wm the Great Elector Dies (1688) Austria 30 Yrs. War ends (1648) War of League of Augsburg (1688-97) Turks besiege Vienna & start of War of Holy League vs. Turks (1683) Peter the Great dies (1725) War of Holy League ends (1699) Russia “Time of Troubles” (1598-1614) Great N.War vs. Sweden (1700-21) Peter I’s Great Embassy (1697)

  2. The cost of war for the Dutch (1579-1640)

  3. The cost of war for the Dutch (1579-1640) 1579- 960,000 florins

  4. The cost of war for the Dutch (1579-1640) 1579- 960,000 florins 1599- 5.5 million florins

  5. The cost of war for the Dutch (1579-1640) 1579- 960,000 florins 1599- 5.5 million florins 1640- 18.8 million florins

  6. FC.93 THE DUTCH REPUBLIC IN THE 1600S Further develop domestic econ: Further develop foreign trade: Expand scope of trade in late 1500s: Netherlands largely below sea level Few natural resources By the sea & trade routes Need dikes, polders, windmills, & drainage systems to reclaim land from the sea Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Dutch are resourceful engineers, merchants & artisans Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Base their trade on salted herring after herring shoals shift to N. Sea in 1400s Dutch make profits Invest profits in new ventures Trade in Baltic Russian furs, Scandin. timber, & Polish grain Efficient & cheap cargo shipDomin. carrying trade & ship bldg. ind. Textile, tobacco curing, munitions, soap, & sugar refining industries Finance institutions: Bank of Amsterdam (1609) & stock market W. Indies for salt Sugar E. Asia for spices Italy to sell Polish Grain Trade w/Turks Africa to get slaves Explore S. Pacific Build excellent long-range navy to protect trade  Also dominate naval ship bldg industry Amsterdam the center of world trade & a cultural golden age in 1600s England jealous of Dutch wealth Wars (FC.96B) Louis XIV jealous of Dutch wealth Wars (FC.95) Decline of Dutch Rep. by 1700 from cost & strain of wars

  7. FC.93 THE DUTCH REPUBLIC IN THE 1600S Netherlands largely below sea level How do they deal with that fact?

  8. FC.93 THE DUTCH REPUBLIC IN THE 1600S A Netherlands largely below sea level Need dikes, polders, windmills, & drainage systems to reclaim land from the sea

  9. An Extensive Landscape with a Road by a Ruin by Philips Koninck (1655)

  10. Road on a Dyke by Meindert Hobbema (1663)

  11. “God created the world, but the Dutch created the Netherlands” Dutch polders, land reclaimed from the sea by use of windmills & drainage canals.

  12. A series of windmills that gradually raises water to drainage canals

  13. The Dutch fortress s’Hertengobosch which illustrates both the boggy nature of the Dutch landscape and how effectively they utilized it for defense.

  14. Dredging rivers of silt was a never-ending process necessary to keep waterways open

  15. FC.93 THE DUTCH REPUBLIC IN THE 1600S Q: Natural Resources? Netherlands largely below sea level Need dikes, polders, windmills, & drainage systems to reclaim land from the sea Natural resources?

  16. FC.93 THE DUTCH REPUBLIC IN THE 1600S Netherlands largely below sea level Few natural resources Need dikes, polders, windmills, & drainage systems to reclaim land from the sea Location??

  17. FC.93 THE DUTCH REPUBLIC IN THE 1600S A Netherlands largely below sea level Few natural resources By the sea & trade routes Need dikes, polders, windmills, & drainage systems to reclaim land from the sea

  18. View of a Beach by Simon de Vlieger

  19. View of the Sea by Salomon van Ruisdael

  20. Stormy Sea by Hans Goderis

  21. Mouth of the Scheldt River by Allart van Everdingen

  22. Ships in Distress off a Rocky Coast (1667) by Ludolf Backhuysen

  23. Storm by Wilhelm Van der Velde

  24. The Schreierstoren (crying tower) where wives made their tearful farewells to sailors leaving Amsterdam

  25. FC.93 THE DUTCH REPUBLIC IN THE 1600S Impact on Dutch character? Netherlands largely below sea level Few natural resources By the sea & trade routes Need dikes, polders, windmills, & drainage systems to reclaim land from the sea

  26. FC.93 THE DUTCH REPUBLIC IN THE 1600S Original basis for Dutch wealth & what happened to cause it? Netherlands largely below sea level Few natural resources By the sea & trade routes Need dikes, polders, windmills, & drainage systems to reclaim land from the sea Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Dutch are resourceful engineers, merchants & artisans Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Base their trade on salted herring after herring shoals shift to N. Sea in 1400s

  27. FC.93 THE DUTCH REPUBLIC IN THE 1600S HERRING & SALT*** Netherlands largely below sea level Few natural resources By the sea & trade routes What % of Eur’s protein? Need dikes, polders, windmills, & drainage systems to reclaim land from the sea Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Dutch are resourceful engineers, merchants & artisans Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Base their trade on salted herring after herring shoals shift to N. Sea in 1400s

  28. FC.93 THE DUTCH REPUBLIC IN THE 1600S HERRING & SALT - c. 40% Eur's protein Netherlands largely below sea level Few natural resources By the sea & trade routes Need dikes, polders, windmills, & drainage systems to reclaim land from the sea Yearly schedule? Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Dutch are resourceful engineers, merchants & artisans Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Base their trade on salted herring after herring shoals shift to N. Sea in 1400s

  29. FC.93 THE DUTCH REPUBLIC IN THE 1600S HERRING & SALT - c. 40% Eur's protein - Port. & Bay of Biscay for salt (Dec.->June) Netherlands largely below sea level Few natural resources By the sea & trade routes Need dikes, polders, windmills, & drainage systems to reclaim land from the sea # of ships & what were the big fishing boats called? Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Dutch are resourceful engineers, merchants & artisans Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Base their trade on salted herring after herring shoals shift to N. Sea in 1400s

  30. FC.93 THE DUTCH REPUBLIC IN THE 1600S HERRING & SALT - c. 40% Eur's protein - Port. & Bay of Biscay for salt (Dec.->June) - 500 (not 3k) Buses vs. small indep. ships Netherlands largely below sea level Few natural resources By the sea & trade routes Need dikes, polders, windmills, & drainage systems to reclaim land from the sea Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Dutch are resourceful engineers, merchants & artisans Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Base their trade on salted herring after herring shoals shift to N. Sea in 1400s

  31. Dutch herring buss with fleet of returning East Indiamen in background

  32. FC.93 THE DUTCH REPUBLIC IN THE 1600S HERRING & SALT - c. 40% Eur's protein - Port. & Bay of Biscay for salt (Dec.->June) - 500 (not 3k) Buses vs. small indep. ships - 2-300 whalers Netherlands largely below sea level Few natural resources By the sea & trade routes Need dikes, polders, windmills, & drainage systems to reclaim land from the sea Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Dutch are resourceful engineers, merchants & artisans Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Base their trade on salted herring after herring shoals shift to N. Sea in 1400s

  33. Dutch arctic whaling station

  34. FC.93 THE DUTCH REPUBLIC IN THE 1600S HERRING & SALT - c. 40% Eur's protein - Port. & Bay of Biscay for salt (Dec.->June) - 500 (not 3k) Buses vs. small indep. ships - 2-300 whalers Netherlands largely below sea level Few natural resources By the sea & trade routes Need dikes, polders, windmills, & drainage systems to reclaim land from the sea Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Dutch are resourceful engineers, merchants & artisans Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) What did this generate? Base their trade on salted herring after herring shoals shift to N. Sea in 1400s

  35. FC.93 THE DUTCH REPUBLIC IN THE 1600S HERRING & SALT - c. 40% Eur's protein - Port. & Bay of Biscay for salt (Dec.->June) - 500 (not 3k) Buses vs. small indep. ships - 2-300 whalers ? Netherlands largely below sea level Few natural resources By the sea & trade routes Need dikes, polders, windmills, & drainage systems to reclaim land from the sea Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Dutch are resourceful engineers, merchants & artisans Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Base their trade on salted herring after herring shoals shift to N. Sea in 1400s Dutch make profits $

  36. FC.93 THE DUTCH REPUBLIC IN THE 1600S HERRING & SALT - c. 40% Eur's protein - Port. & Bay of Biscay for salt (Dec.->June) - 500 (not 3k) Buses vs. small indep. ships - 2-300 whalers Where did they further develop trade? Further develop domestic econ: Further develop foreign trade: Netherlands largely below sea level Few natural resources By the sea & trade routes Need dikes, polders, windmills, & drainage systems to reclaim land from the sea Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Dutch are resourceful engineers, merchants & artisans Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Base their trade on salted herring after herring shoals shift to N. Sea in 1400s Dutch make profits Invest profits in new ventures Trade in Baltic Russian furs, Scandin. timber, & Polish grain Efficient & cheap cargo shipDomin. carrying trade & ship bldg. ind. Textile, tobacco curing, munitions, soap, & sugar refining industries Finance institutions: Bank of Amsterdam (1609) & stock market

  37. FC.93 THE DUTCH REPUBLIC IN THE 1600S HERRING & SALT - c. 40% Eur's protein - Port. & Bay of Biscay for salt (Dec.->June) - 500 (not 3k) Buses vs. small indep. ships - 2-300 whalers Further develop domestic econ: Further develop foreign trade: What did they need to carry on that trade? Netherlands largely below sea level Few natural resources By the sea & trade routes Need dikes, polders, windmills, & drainage systems to reclaim land from the sea Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Dutch are resourceful engineers, merchants & artisans Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Base their trade on salted herring after herring shoals shift to N. Sea in 1400s Dutch make profits Invest profits in new ventures $$ Trade in Baltic Russian furs, Scandin. timber, & Polish grain Efficient & cheap cargo shipDomin. carrying trade & ship bldg. ind. Textile, tobacco curing, munitions, soap, & sugar refining industries Finance institutions: Bank of Amsterdam (1609) & stock market

  38. FC.93 THE DUTCH REPUBLIC IN THE 1600S HERRING & SALT - c. 40% Eur's protein - Port. & Bay of Biscay for salt (Dec.->June) - 500 (not 3k) Buses vs. small indep. ships - 2-300 whalers Efficient & cheap cargo ship Called what? Further develop domestic econ: Further develop foreign trade: Netherlands largely below sea level Few natural resources By the sea & trade routes Need dikes, polders, windmills, & drainage systems to reclaim land from the sea Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Dutch are resourceful engineers, merchants & artisans Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Base their trade on salted herring after herring shoals shift to N. Sea in 1400s Dutch make profits Invest profits in new ventures Called what? Trade in Baltic Russian furs, Scandin. timber, & Polish grain Efficient & cheap cargo shipDomin. carrying trade & ship bldg. ind. Textile, tobacco curing, munitions, soap, & sugar refining industries Finance institutions: Bank of Amsterdam (1609) & stock market

  39. FC.93 THE DUTCH REPUBLIC IN THE 1600S HERRING & SALT - c. 40% Eur's protein - Port. & Bay of Biscay for salt (Dec.->June) - 500 (not 3k) Buses vs. small indep. ships - 2-300 whalers Fluyts*** Further develop domestic econ: Further develop foreign trade: Netherlands largely below sea level Few natural resources By the sea & trade routes Need dikes, polders, windmills, & drainage systems to reclaim land from the sea Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Dutch are resourceful engineers, merchants & artisans Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Base their trade on salted herring after herring shoals shift to N. Sea in 1400s Dutch make profits Invest profits in new ventures Trade in Baltic Russian furs, Scandin. timber, & Polish grain Efficient & cheap cargo shipDomin. carrying trade & ship bldg. ind. Textile, tobacco curing, munitions, soap, & sugar refining industries Finance institutions: Bank of Amsterdam (1609) & stock market Armament?

  40. HERRING & SALT - c. 40% Eur's protein - Port. & Bay of Biscay for salt (Dec.->June) - 500 (not 3k) Buses vs. small indep. ships - 2-300 whalers Fluyts - No guns->more space Constr. tech’s?

  41. HERRING & SALT - c. 40% Eur's protein - Port. & Bay of Biscay for salt (Dec.->June) - 500 (not 3k) Buses vs. small indep. ships - 2-300 whalers Fluyts - No guns->more space - Superior bldg. tech’s: Mech. Cranes & wind- driven saws Advantage?

  42. HERRING & SALT - c. 40% Eur's protein - Port. & Bay of Biscay for salt (Dec.->June) - 500 (not 3k) Buses vs. small indep. ships - 2-300 whalers Fluyts - No guns->more space - Superior bldg. tech’s: Mech. Cranes & wind- driven saws -> 4/7 cost to build Crew size & why?

  43. HERRING & SALT - c. 40% Eur's protein - Port. & Bay of Biscay for salt (Dec.->June) - 500 (not 3k) Buses vs. small indep. ships - 2-300 whalers Fluyts - No guns->more space - Super.constr. tech’s: Mech. Cranes & wind- driven saws -> 4/7 cost to build - Simpler rigging w/winches & tackles ->10 crew vs. 20-30

  44. FC.93 THE DUTCH REPUBLIC IN THE 1600S HERRING & SALT - c. 40% Eur's protein - Port. & Bay of Biscay for salt (Dec.->June) - 500 (not 3k) Buses vs. small indep. ships - 2-300 whalers Fluyts - No guns->more space - Super.constr. tech’s: Mech. Cranes & wind- driven saws -> 4/7 cost to build - Simpler rigging w/winches & tackles ->10 crew vs. 20-30 Efficient & cheap cargo shipDominated? Further develop domestic econ: Further develop foreign trade: Netherlands largely below sea level Few natural resources By the sea & trade routes Need dikes, polders, windmills, & drainage systems to reclaim land from the sea Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Dutch are resourceful engineers, merchants & artisans Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Base their trade on salted herring after herring shoals shift to N. Sea in 1400s Dutch make profits Invest profits in new ventures Trade in Baltic Russian furs, Scandin. timber, & Polish grain Efficient & cheap cargo shipDomin. carrying trade & ship bldg. ind. Textile, tobacco curing, munitions, soap, & sugar refining industries Finance institutions: Bank of Amsterdam (1609) & stock market

  45. FC.93 THE DUTCH REPUBLIC IN THE 1600S HERRING & SALT - c. 40% Eur's protein - Port. & Bay of Biscay for salt (Dec.->June) - 500 (not 3k) Buses vs. small indep. ships - 2-300 whalers Fluyts - No guns->more space - Super.constr. tech’s: Mech. Cranes & wind- driven saws -> 4/7 cost to build - Simpler rigging w/winches & tackles ->10 crew vs. 20-30 Further develop domestic econ: Further develop foreign trade: Netherlands largely below sea level Few natural resources By the sea & trade routes Need dikes, polders, windmills, & drainage systems to reclaim land from the sea Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Dutch are resourceful engineers, merchants & artisans Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Base their trade on salted herring after herring shoals shift to N. Sea in 1400s Dutch make profits Invest profits in new ventures Trade in Baltic Russian furs, Scandin. timber, & Polish grain Efficient & cheap cargo shipDomin. carrying trade & ship bldg. ind. Textile, tobacco curing, munitions, soap, & sugar refining industries Finance institutions: Bank of Amsterdam (1609) & stock market $$$

  46. Problem 1: The Dutch ships had to pay a toll to go through the Danish Sound, the narrow strait between the North and Baltic Seas. The Danes estimated cargo space by just measuring the width of the beam at the center of the ship. What could the Dutch do to cut down on tolls? Build their ships with the hull pinched in at the middle.

  47. Fire pumps, a vital piece of equipment on board wooden ships, witnessed major improvement with the introduction of Van der Heyden's hosepipe that could transport the water all the way to the fire itself. Van der Heyden's apparatus incorporated a suction pump mechanism with a pressure tank to ensure a continuous jet of water that could now reach the fire's centre. It featured a leather hosepipe reinforced inside with brass rings, so that the pipe remained flexible while ensuring that suction power wouldn’t be cut. The hosepipe pump could pump five to six times as much water as the older pumps. The spouts and hose connections had standard screw attachments so that every hose would fit every machine. It remained in use until the late 1800s.

  48. FC.93 THE DUTCH REPUBLIC IN THE 1600S HERRING & SALT - c. 40% Eur's protein - Port. & Bay of Biscay for salt (Dec.->June) - 500 (not 3k) Buses vs. small indep. ships - 2-300 whalers Fluyts - No guns->more space - Super.constr. tech’s: Mech. Cranes & wind- driven saws -> 4/7 cost to build - Simpler rigging w/winches & tackles ->10 crew vs. 20-30 Further develop domestic econ: Further develop foreign trade: What domestic industries they were they developing…? Netherlands largely below sea level Few natural resources By the sea & trade routes Need dikes, polders, windmills, & drainage systems to reclaim land from the sea Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Dutch are resourceful engineers, merchants & artisans Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Base their trade on salted herring after herring shoals shift to N. Sea in 1400s Dutch make profits Invest profits in new ventures Trade in Baltic Russian furs, Scandin. timber, & Polish grain Efficient & cheap cargo shipDomin. carrying trade & ship bldg. ind. Textile, tobacco curing, munitions, soap, & sugar refining industries Finance institutions: Bank of Amsterdam (1609) & stock market $$$$