The West Between the Wars 1919 - 1939 Ms. Susan M. Pojer & Mrs. Browne Horace Greeley HS Chappaqua, NY
Main Themes • The Versailles Treaty (1919) • Article 231 “The War Guilt Clause” • Germany forced to pay reparations • De-militarized zone in the Rhineland • New nations created from old empires • Wilson’s 14 Points created the League of Nations
Main themes • What were the fears in Western Europe? • Fear of communism spreading • Fear that colonies would revolt for independence • Fear that Germany would NOT pay reparations • Fear that nations couldn’t rebuild fast enough to provide jobs for all • Fear that a new war would break out • Fear that they would be unable to return to “normalcy”
Washington naval conference 1921-1922 The ratio of battleships allowed by nation: U. S. Britain Japan France Italy 5 5 3 1.67 1.67 Prevented a new arms race between the US, Britain & Japan!
Locarno pact 1925 Austin Chamberlain (Britain) GustaveStresemann(Germany) AristideBriand(France) • Guaranteed the common boundaries of Belgium, France, and Germany as specified in the Treaty of Versailles of 1919. • Germany signed treaties with Poland and Czechoslovakia, agreeing to change the eastern borders of Germany by arbitration only.
Kellogg-briand pact 1928 • 15 nations committed to outlawing aggression and war for settling disputes. • Problem no way of enforcement.
Main goal after WWI • Security! • Against Whom? • Why? • and How?
Finding security after wwi Against Whom? France wanted to keep Germany weak and Russiancommunism at a distance
Finding security after wwi Why? • Germany fear of invasion (1870, 1914) • Russia fear of Bolshevism & communist revolution
Finding security after wwi How? 1. Creation of the Little Entente ~ an alliance with Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia & Romania to replace the former alliance with Russia
Finding securityAfter WWI How? 2. Build the Maginot Line
finding security after wwi Where to build the Maginot Line? Why?
Finding security: the maginot Line • WW2: The Maginot Line 1 - YouTube
The maginot line: why it failed in 1940 The line was constructed along the German border The invasion occurred from the north through Belgium (again )
Finding security after WWI How? 3. Political Decisions of the French Government Disagreement amongst conservatives & liberals over how to best achieve these goals…… focus abroad ? focus domestically? 27+ different cabinets were elected between 1919-1933!
Raymond poincare & the conservative right • He sent French troops into the Ruhr in 1923. • Pushed for large-scale infrastructure reconstruction programs [counting on German reparations to pay for them]. • After 1926-29: • New taxes • Spend less
Edouard herriot & the french socialists • 1924-1926. • Progressive social reform. • Spoke for the lower classes, small businessmen, and farmers.
Results for france? • In your opinion, was security achieved? • What do you think happens in the 1930’s?
Main theme after wwi • “World War I changed British politics”
The Profound Change in British politics • In Britain… • 1918 all men over 21 can now vote • 1918 all women over 30 can now vote • 1920’s economically depressed • Coal mining, ship building & steel most affected • Unemployment over 10% • Increase in government programs • The 2 main political parties differ on how to solve the economic problems
Stanley baldwin 1923, 1924-1929, 1935-1937 Conservative Party
Changes in British Politics: The Conservatives • The Conservative Platform • Abandon free trade & use protective tariffs • Lower prices by cutting wages • Triggered the General Strike of 1926 • Coal miners went on strike then others
1926 general strike Trades Disputes Act (1927): • All general or sympathy strikes were illegal. • It forbade unions from raising money for political purposes.
Ramsay macdonald 1924, 1929-1935 1st Prime Minister from the Labour Party
Changes in British Politics: The labour Party • Labour Platform • Wanted extensive social reform • Recognized the USSR in hopes if increasing trade • Trade agreement reached in August 1924
Changes in British Politics: the empire • India • Britain begins to discuss “eventual” self rule • Rise of Mohandas Gandhi & Indian National Congress (founded in 1885) Gandhi and his followers begin a campaign of passive non-resistance based on the Hindu concept of ahimsa * Salt March 1930 * Independence in 1947 * Gandhi assassinated on January 30th, 1948
Changes in British Politics: The Empire • Ireland • 1914 Home Rule bill passed then delayed due to World War I • Easter Monday April 1916 • Uprising begins in Dublin • Defeat and execution of nationalist leaders by the British triggers support of Sinn Fein • Sinn Fein , radical extremist group with its military wing known as the Irish Republican Army (IRA).
Changes in British Politics: The Empire • Ireland (cont’d) • January 21, 1919 Irish independence declared • guerilla war erupts between IRA and British army
Changes in British Politics: the Empire • Ireland (cont’d) • December 1921 the Irish Free State is created • The 6 northern provinces of Ulster remain part of Britain • Conflict continues until Good Friday Peace Accords in 1998!
The Change in British Politics • Has Britain’s role in world affairs been altered in the 1920’s- are they still the most powerful empire? • How will these changes affect Britain in the 1930’s?
wwi & defeat of the German reich • Kaiser William (Wilhelm) II abdicated on November 9, 1918 • Germany is declared a republic AND then signs the armistice accepting German defeat in WWI • The Weimar Republic is created
Post WWI Germany • Was the Weimar Republic doomed to fail? • How should the demands of society be handled post-war? • Was the rise of Hitler inevitable?
The Weimar Republic • Written and put into effect in August 1919 • One of its first official acts is to accept the Versailles Treaty • No presence at the peace conference • German people unaware of losses during war • “stabbed in the back theory” (belief that the military had been sold out by the politicians)
From the German point of View Lost—but not forgotten country. • Into the heart You are to dig yourself these words as into stone: Which we have lost may not be truly lost!
The Weimar Republic • Constitutional flaws • Proportional representation for all elections • Presidential appointment & removal of the chancellor • Article 48: rule by decree in an emergency
The weimar republic • Lack of Broad Popular Support • Officer corps were resentful • Nationalistic Germans were strong supporters of the “stabbed in the back” theory • Psychological, social & economic effects of WWI devastated Germany • Violence, inflation, strikes, assassination attempts marred the first 5 years of the republic
The Weimar republic • The Inflation Crisis • May 1921 Germany given a reparations bill for 132 billion gold marks • By this time the German mark was quickly losing its value • The French feared they would receive no payments invaded the Ruhr • The Germans respond with economic passive resistance