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The West Between the Wars 1919 - 1939

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  1. The West Between the Wars 1919 - 1939 Ms. Susan M. Pojer & Mrs. Browne Horace Greeley HS Chappaqua, NY

  2. Europe in 1919

  3. Main Themes • The Versailles Treaty (1919) • Article 231 “The War Guilt Clause” • Germany forced to pay reparations • De-militarized zone in the Rhineland • New nations created from old empires • Wilson’s 14 Points  created the League of Nations

  4. Main themes • What were the fears in Western Europe? • Fear of communism spreading • Fear that colonies would revolt for independence • Fear that Germany would NOT pay reparations • Fear that nations couldn’t rebuild fast enough to provide jobs for all • Fear that a new war would break out • Fear that they would be unable to return to “normalcy”

  5. European debts to the united states

  6. Collective Security

  7. League of nations members

  8. Washington naval conference 1921-1922 The ratio of battleships allowed by nation: U. S. Britain Japan France Italy 5 5 3 1.67 1.67 Prevented a new arms race between the US, Britain & Japan!

  9. Locarno pact 1925 Austin Chamberlain (Britain) GustaveStresemann(Germany) AristideBriand(France) • Guaranteed the common boundaries of Belgium, France, and Germany as specified in the Treaty of Versailles of 1919. • Germany signed treaties with Poland and Czechoslovakia, agreeing to change the eastern borders of Germany by arbitration only.

  10. Locarno pact 1925

  11. Kellogg-briand pact 1928 • 15 nations committed to outlawing aggression and war for settling disputes. • Problem no way of enforcement.

  12. France

  13. Main goal after WWI • Security! • Against Whom? • Why? • and How?

  14. Finding security after wwi Against Whom? France wanted to keep Germany weak and Russiancommunism at a distance

  15. Finding security after wwi Why? • Germany fear of invasion (1870, 1914) • Russia fear of Bolshevism & communist revolution

  16. Finding security after wwi How? 1. Creation of the Little Entente ~ an alliance with Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia & Romania to replace the former alliance with Russia

  17. Finding securityAfter WWI How? 2. Build the Maginot Line

  18. finding security after wwi Where to build the Maginot Line? Why?

  19. Finding security: the maginot Line • WW2: The Maginot Line 1 - YouTube

  20. The maginot line: why it failed in 1940 The line was constructed along the German border The invasion occurred from the north through Belgium (again )

  21. Finding security after WWI How? 3. Political Decisions of the French Government Disagreement amongst conservatives & liberals over how to best achieve these goals…… focus abroad ? focus domestically?  27+ different cabinets were elected between 1919-1933!

  22. Raymond poincare & the conservative right • He sent French troops into the Ruhr in 1923. • Pushed for large-scale infrastructure reconstruction programs [counting on German reparations to pay for them]. • After 1926-29: • New taxes • Spend less

  23. Edouard herriot & the french socialists • 1924-1926. • Progressive social reform. • Spoke for the lower classes, small businessmen, and farmers.

  24. Results for france? • In your opinion, was security achieved? • What do you think happens in the 1930’s?

  25. England

  26. Main theme after wwi • “World War I changed British politics”

  27. The Profound Change in British politics • In Britain… • 1918 all men over 21 can now vote • 1918 all women over 30 can now vote • 1920’s economically depressed • Coal mining, ship building & steel most affected • Unemployment over 10% • Increase in government programs • The 2 main political parties differ on how to solve the economic problems

  28. Stanley baldwin 1923, 1924-1929, 1935-1937 Conservative Party

  29. Changes in British Politics: The Conservatives • The Conservative Platform • Abandon free trade & use protective tariffs • Lower prices by cutting wages • Triggered the General Strike of 1926 • Coal miners went on strike then others

  30. 1926 general strike Trades Disputes Act (1927): • All general or sympathy strikes were illegal. • It forbade unions from raising money for political purposes.

  31. Ramsay macdonald 1924, 1929-1935 1st Prime Minister from the Labour Party

  32. Changes in British Politics: The labour Party • Labour Platform • Wanted extensive social reform • Recognized the USSR in hopes if increasing trade • Trade agreement reached in August 1924

  33. Changes in British Politics: the empire • India • Britain begins to discuss “eventual” self rule • Rise of Mohandas Gandhi & Indian National Congress (founded in 1885) Gandhi and his followers begin a campaign of passive non-resistance based on the Hindu concept of ahimsa * Salt March 1930 * Independence in 1947 * Gandhi assassinated on January 30th, 1948

  34. Changes in British Politics: The Empire • Ireland • 1914 Home Rule bill passed then delayed due to World War I • Easter Monday April 1916 • Uprising begins in Dublin • Defeat and execution of nationalist leaders by the British triggers support of Sinn Fein • Sinn Fein , radical extremist group with its military wing known as the Irish Republican Army (IRA).

  35. Changes in British Politics: The Empire • Ireland (cont’d) • January 21, 1919 Irish independence declared • guerilla war erupts between IRA and British army

  36. Changes in British Politics: the Empire • Ireland (cont’d) • December 1921 the Irish Free State is created • The 6 northern provinces of Ulster remain part of Britain • Conflict continues until Good Friday Peace Accords in 1998!

  37. The Change in British Politics • Has Britain’s role in world affairs been altered in the 1920’s- are they still the most powerful empire? • How will these changes affect Britain in the 1930’s?

  38. Germany

  39. wwi & defeat of the German reich • Kaiser William (Wilhelm) II abdicated on November 9, 1918 • Germany is declared a republic AND then signs the armistice accepting German defeat in WWI • The Weimar Republic is created

  40. German “revolutions” 1918

  41. Post WWI Germany • Was the Weimar Republic doomed to fail? • How should the demands of society be handled post-war? • Was the rise of Hitler inevitable?

  42. Friedrich ebert: 1st president of the weimar republic

  43. The Weimar Republic • Written and put into effect in August 1919 • One of its first official acts is to accept the Versailles Treaty • No presence at the peace conference • German people unaware of losses during war • “stabbed in the back theory” (belief that the military had been sold out by the politicians)

  44. From the German point of View  Lost—but not forgotten country. • Into the heart You are to dig yourself these words as into stone: Which we have lost may not be truly lost!

  45. Maimed German WWI Veteran

  46. The Weimar Republic • Constitutional flaws • Proportional representation for all elections • Presidential appointment & removal of the chancellor • Article 48: rule by decree in an emergency

  47. The weimar republic • Lack of Broad Popular Support • Officer corps were resentful • Nationalistic Germans were strong supporters of the “stabbed in the back” theory • Psychological, social & economic effects of WWI devastated Germany • Violence, inflation, strikes, assassination attempts marred the first 5 years of the republic

  48. The Weimar republic • The Inflation Crisis • May 1921 Germany given a reparations bill for 132 billion gold marks • By this time the German mark was quickly losing its value • The French feared they would receive no payments  invaded the Ruhr • The Germans respond with economic passive resistance

  49. The french in the ruhr : 1923

  50. The french occupation of the ruhr