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  1. Wars of Religion Chapter 9-11 – Gonzalez

  2. War in Germany Gonzalez, Chapter 9

  3. The War of Schmalkald • Philip of Hesse vs. Charles V (I)

  4. Expansion of Protestantism in Germany • Peace of Nuremberg (1532) – allowed Protestants freedom in their own territories, but prohibited expansion; Protestantism continued to expand nonetheless • Philip of Hesse wrested the duchy of Wurttemberg from the Catholics; once restored, the exiled duke declared for Protestantism • The death of George of Saxony (Ducal) in 1539; his successor Henry declared for Protestantism • That same year Brandenburg also declared for Protestantism • Archbishops of Trier, Cologne, and Mainz were also considering embracing the Protestant faith; this would give the Protestants a clear majority in the electoral college

  5. High Water Mark – 1539 • Faced with political realities, Charles attempted rapprochement between Catholics and Protestants • The Schmalkaldic League took Brunswick; smaller bishops who were also feudal lords turned their possessions into secular states and declared for Protestantism

  6. Decline of Protestantism • The Bigamy of Philip of Hesse • The refusal of Duke Maurice of Saxony to join the Schmalkaldic League; even as a Protestant he allied himself to the emperor, who promised him special consideration • Luther’s death in 1546 • Invasion of Charles into Germany, in which he took captive Philip of Hesse and John Frederick of Saxony

  7. The Augsburg Interim (1548) • Written after Charles’ victory over the Schmalkaldic League at the Diet of Augsburg of 1548 • Written by a joint commission of Catholic and Protestant theologians • At Charles command, this was the “law of the land” until a General Council could be convened to decide on the issues being debated • Several Protestant theologians flatly refused to obey, many fled the continent • Melanchthon agreed to a modified version of it called the “Leipzig Interim”

  8. The Interim • All Protestant territories must readopt Catholic sacraments and beliefs • Clergy in Protestant territories were allowed to marry • Both bread and wine were administered to laity • Melanchthon agreed (on behalf of Electoral Saxony) to these conditions (considering them adiaphora), but stipulated that Justification by Faith continue to be allowed • Melanchthon and his followers were considered traitors to the Protestant cause

  9. Charles overplays his hand • Many German princes protested against the ill treatment received by Philip of Hesse and John Frederick of Saxony • Protestant princes who were sharply divided by Philip’s bigamy prior to the Interim now found themselves drawn together by their objection to the Interim • Both the pope and the king of France resented Charles’ success, and made diplomatic moves to hamper him • Maurice of Ducal Saxony was not satisfied with his rewards for supporting Charles, and turned to join the conspiracy • Then rebellion broke out; at the same time Henry II of France invaded Charles’ possessions beyond the Rhine

  10. Charles is defeated both militarily and politically • Maurice captured strategic places in Germany, Charles flees to Italy • Attempts by Charles’ army to regain possessions taken by the French is rebuffed • Charles begins to delegate more and more responsibility for the empire to his brother Ferdinand, who in turn agrees to the “Peace of Passau” (1552)

  11. Peace of Passau (1552) • Philip of Hesse and Frederick of Saxony are released • A qualified “freedom of religion” is guaranteed throughout the empire • Each local ruler makes the decision for himself and his subjects whether to follow Catholicism or Lutheranism (as defined by the Confession of Augsburg) • Anabaptism and Reformed were not included in the provisions of the treaty

  12. Charles abdicates • Beginning in 1555, he gradually relinquishes his realms to his son, Philip of Spain (Low Countries, Italian possessions, and finally Spain) • Retires to a monastery of St. Yuste in Spain • Dies in 1558

  13. Ferdinand I (Holy Roman Emperor) • 1558-1564

  14. Imperial policy after Charles • Ferdinand abandoned the hardline policies of Charles against Protestants • Under Ferdinand and his successor, Maximillian, Protestantism continued to expand • The growing religious tensions would eventually lead to the Thirty Years’ War in the next century

  15. The Low Countries Gonzalez, Chapter 10

  16. Cultural-Political realities • 1523, in Antwerp, first two Protestant martyrs • Seventeen provinces (roughly the Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxemburg), under the lordship of the House of Hapsburg (thus under the direct rule of Charles V) • Lacking cultural unity: French-speaking south, Dutch-speaking north, and a Flemish-speaking area • Political jurisdictions were also confusing; many bishoprics comprised areas that crossed provincial boundaries • The subjects considered Charles as “Flemish”; but considered his son, Philip, to be “Spanish” • Philip’s subjects resented “Spanish” rule

  17. Religious situation • Birthplace of the Brethren of the Common Life • Erasmus of Rotterdam (greatest humanist reformer) was a native son • Lutheran preachers found a fertile field in the Low Countries; as did the Anabaptists • Eventually a great influx of Calvinist preachers from Geneva, France and southern Germany would find great success; eventually Calvinism becomes the main form of Protestantism • Charles persecuted Protestantism with some success, but could not completely stamp it out • Charles, on the whole, was a popular ruler; Philip was not

  18. Philip’s troubles • Philip’s pro-Spanish policies were unpopular; Philip placed his half-sister, Margaret of Parma, in charge • The populace of the Seventeen Provinces were not happy that Philip maintained a Spanish army in the Low Countries • Philip reorganized the church and appointed new bishops who were given inquisitorial powers; neither of these were popular moves • Philip alienated his father’s old ally, the popular William, Prince of Orange • Philip then tried to impose the decrees of the Council of Trent

  19. The “Beggars” • In 1566, Several hundred leaders of nobility and the bourgeoisie joined in a petition to the regent, Margaret of Parma, to protest the religious policies of Philip • Margaret was told that she need not heed or fear “those beggars”; the name stuck • The leather bag of a beggar became the patriotic banner of rebellion against Margaret’s regency • The movement quickly took on religious overtones, and Protestantism began to be preached under the protection of armed “beggars” • The regency did not know how to respond to the growing problem; bands of beggars began to invade churches, overturn altars, and destroying images

  20. War in the Low Countries • The Council of State finally appeal to William of Orange, who restored peace for a time • Meanwhile Philip prepared for an invasion of the Provinces, which finally came in 1567; William fled to Germany • The Duke of Alba led the invasion with an army of Spanish and Italian troops; Philip installed him as regent • Alba established the “Council of Disturbances” which was dubbed by the populace the “Council of Blood” • William of Orange eventually responded with an invasion of his own; but Alba defeated him • While Alba ruled the land; the “beggars” successfully harassed the Spanish by sea (privateers)

  21. The plight of the Protestant cause • Alba eventually tired of the Provinces and asked to be appointed elsewhere (1573) • He was replaced by Luis de Zuniga y Requesens, who pursued a conciliatory policy with patriotic Catholics, thus exploiting the religious divisions within the Provinces • With the loss of patriotic Catholics, the cause of the Protestant “beggars” seemed hopeless; they continued to be successful in their sea engagements • William of Orange had initially been a liberal Catholic; while in exile in Germany he declared for Calvinism

  22. The Siege of Leiden (1574) • The Spanish continued to be successful on the battlefield; besieged Leiden • An army sent by William of Orange to break the siege was defeated; two of William’s brothers were killed in the battle • William then suggested that the dikes around Leiden be opened, thus flooding the land around Leiden; it took four months for the sea to reach Leiden, and with it the “beggars of the sea” also arrived • Lacking naval support the Spanish were eventually forced to abandon the siege

  23. Pacification of Ghent (1576) • Requesens sudden death (1576) left the Spanish without a general and without pay • They began to sack cities in the south, which were much easier targets, but by doing this they ended up reuniting the north and the south in a common cause • The Seventeen Provinces agreed to the Pacification of Ghent, realizing that what was at stake was national freedom not religious differences; William of Orange applauded the treaty • The next governor, Don John of Austria (illegitimate son of Charles V) was not allowed to enter Brussels until he had agreed to the stipulations of the Pacification

  24. War flares up again • Philip of Spain would not give up the cause; he sent a new army into the region, once again the southern provinces abandoned the cause of patriotism • Against the advice of William of Orange, the northern provinces formed a separate league for the defense of faith and freedom; nonetheless he would be identified with the struggle and become its leader • Philip put a bounty on William’s head, which eventually led to his assassination; however, Philip refused to pay • William’s son, Maurice, proved to be a much better general than his father, leading many victories against the Spanish

  25. Treaty of 1607 • Almost a decade after Philip’s death, Spain finally decided to cut her losses and sign a truce with the Provinces • By then the vast majority in the northern provinces were Calvinists; the southern provinces remained Catholic • Religious, economic and cultural differences would lead to the formation of three countries: the Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxemburg

  26. Protestantism in France Gonzalez, Chapter 11

  27. Shifting Royal Policies in France • Francis I (1494-1547)

  28. The Policies of Francis I • Last great king of the House of Valois • Had no desire to see Protestantism in his own territories, yet encouraged the spread of Protestantism in Germany • His policies towards Protestantism in his own territories changed with political circumstances; in spite of periods of persecution, Protestantism spread throughout France • Ex-patriots in Strasbourg and Geneva were ready to intervene in favor of Protestantism in France • The neighboring kingdom of Navarre encouraged the reform movement • Francis’ sister, Margaret of Angouleme, was Queen Consort of Henry II of Navarre

  29. Margaret of Angouleme (1492-1549) a.k.a. Margaret of Navarre

  30. Reign of Henry II of France (1519-1559) • Son of Francis I; King of France from 1547

  31. Catherine de Medici (1519-1589) • Wife of Henry II

  32. Spread of Calvinism • Henry continued his father’s policies against Protestantism, but more consistently and cruelly • In spite of persecution, the first Protestant church was formally organized during Henry’s reign (1555), following the pattern of Calvin’s work in Geneva • Four years (1559) later the first national synod of Calvinist churches in France met secretly in Paris and approved a Confession of Faith and a Discipline for the new church • Henry died shortly after that gathering; he left three sons who would successively inherit the throne: Francis II, Charles IX, and Henry III, and three daughters, one of whom would become queen of France (Margaret of Valois) • The power behind the throne, however, was Catherine de Medici

  33. Political and Religious Troubles in France • Catherine’s projects were hindered by the influence of the House of Guise, a prominent family whose power grew during the reigns of Francis I and Henry II • General Francis of Guise and his brother Charles, cardinal of Lorraine, were the practical rulers of France while Francis II was young • They were resented by the “princes of blood,” nobility who were among the king’s closest relatives – among them Louis de Conde and Antoine de Bourbon (married to Jane d’Albert, a daughter of Margaret of Navarre); both of these had declared for Calvinism • The bitter dispute between the Houses of Guise (Catholic) and Bourbon (Calvinist) took on religious overtones

  34. Huguenots • The Conspiracy of Amboise (1560): failed attempt to gain power in France by abducting the young Francis II • The plot was not entirely religious in motivation, yet most of the conspirators were identified as “Huguenots,” a term of uncertain origin given to French Protestants; among those imprisoned was Louis de Conde, which caused grave concerns among the rest of the nobility who felt that a trial and condemnation of a “prince of blood” would constitute an attack on their ancient, inherited privileges

  35. Death of Francis II (1544-1560)

  36. Catherine assumes the Regency • Catherine de Medici quickly intervened at the death of Francis II to become regent for her ten-year-old son, Charles IX • She allied herself to the Huguenots against the House of Guise (a.k.a. Lorraine); by this time there were some 2000 Protestant churches in France • She convened a colloquy of Protestant and Catholic theologians in order to seek agreement; but this failed • In 1562, She issued the Edict of St. Germain, which granted Huguenots freedom to practice their religion, but forbade them owning places of worship, gathering for synods without permit, collecting funds, and supporting an army

  37. The Massacre of Vassy (1562) • The Guises refused to abide by the edict • The Guise brothers with two hundred armed noblemen surrounded a stable where a group of Huguenots were worshipping in the village of Vassy, and slew as many as they could • This massacre resulted in the first of a long series of religious wars that ravaged France; Catholics won most of the battles • After a year of war, the Huguenots were again granted a measure of tolerance; but this was not lasting, as two other religious wars between 1567 and 1570 would break out

  38. The Massacre of Vassy (1562)

  39. The Peace of 1570 • Catherine seemed willing to make concessions to the Protestants, hoping they would help her in her power struggle against the House of Guise • In 1571, Admiral Gaspard de Coligny, leader of the Huguenot cause, appeared in court and made a favorable impression on the young king • There was also talk of marriage between Catherine’s daughter Margaret of Valois and the Protestant prince Henry Bourbon; all appeared to be well

  40. St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre (August 23, 1572)

  41. St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre • The new duke of Guise, Henry, was convinced that his father’s death had been ordered by Coligny • Catherine also began to fear the growing influence of the Protestant admiral who had won the king’s admiration • Thus developed an unholy alliance to be rid of the admiral • The main Huguenot leaders had come to Paris for the wedding of Henry Bourbon, by then King of Navarre, to the French king’s sister, Margaret of Valois (daughter of Catherine de Medici), which took place on August 18 • After the wedding, Coligny was shot from a building owned by the Guise family; he was wounded, not assassinated

  42. St. Bartholomew’s Massacre • The Huguenots demanded justice; Charles IX took the investigation seriously; the plot was uncovered, the Guises were implicated and banned from court; Catherine was also a suspect, as was Charles’ brother Henry of Anjou • Catherine then convinced Charles that the Huguenots were plotting to wrest the throne from him, and that their leader was Coligny; the stage was set for the massacre • The conspirators – Charles IX, Catherine, and the Duke of Guise met with those keeping order in Paris and gave them detailed orders as to who their victims were to be • The first victim was Coligny; some 2000 Huguenots in Paris met a similar fate • The two Protestant princes of blood, Louis de Conde and Henry Bourbon were dragged before Charles IX and forced to deny their faith in order to save their lives.

  43. The Massacre spreads • The Duke of Guise had given orders that the massacre should spread to every corner in the kingdom • A few upright magistrates refused to obey, but most did, and tens of thousands died as a result • The news spread throughout Europe. William of Orange, who had been marching on Brussels with an army he raised with French support abandoned his campaign; Queen Elizabeth of England dressed in mourning; Emperor Maxmillian, though a Catholic, reacted with horror at the news • Pope Gregory XIII ordered the theTe Deum be sung in celebration of the night of St. Bartholomew; the Spanish were also happy at receiving the news

  44. The War of the Three Henrys • The Huguenots fortified two cities – La Rochelle and Montauban – declared war on the House of Guise and the King of France, Charles IX • Charles died in 1574, his brother, Henry (III) became king and decided to make peace with the Protestants, who were given freedom of worship except in Paris • The House of Guise declared war on the Huguenots, and Henry eventually joined them • Then in 1587, the youngest son of Catherine de Medici (and heir apparent to the French throne) died; Henry III no longer had a direct heir; the next legal heir was Henry Bourbon, king of Navarre, who had managed to escape prison in 1576 • He then declared once again for Protestantism and became the center of Protestant resistance

  45. Henry of Guise’s claim to the throne • The Catholic party could not countenance the prospect of a Protestant king, and decided to put forward Henry of Guise as the rightful king; a document had been “uncovered” in Lorraine claiming that the Guise family had descended from Charlemagne, therefore exceeding the claims of both the Houses of Valois and Bourbon

  46. The Three Henrys • Now there were three claimants: Henry III, Henry of Guise, and Henry of Navarre (who did not claim to be rightful king, just the rightful heir to Henry III)

  47. The War of the Three Henrys (1587-1589) • In 1588, Henry of Guise took Paris and had himself proclaimed king • Henry III then ordered the assassination of Henry of Guise on Christmas Day 1588; the Catholic leaders continued their rebellion • Henry III was forced to flee Paris and sought out the refuge of his erstwhile rival, Henry Bourbon of Navarre; Navarre treated him with respect as the true king, but would not let him determine the policies that followed • Henry III was assassinated by a fanatical Dominican friar, who was convinced that the king was a tyrant; Henry of Navarre took the title of Henry IV

  48. Henry IV (1553-1610) • King of France from 1589

  49. Henry’s Compromise • French Catholics were not ready to have a Protestant king • The pope declared that Henry Bourbon’s claim was not valid; meanwhile Philip of Spain was planning to seize the opportunity to make himself master of France • The war in France continued on for years • Finally convinced that he would never rule as a Protestant, he converted (once again) to Catholicism • “Paris is worth a mass”

  50. Edict of Nantes (1598) • Henry IV did not forget his former comrades in arms; he showed them loyalty and favor throughout his reign • Many recalcitrant Catholics continued to claim that Henry was still a heretic • On April 13, 1598, Henry issued the Edict of Nantes that granted the Huguenots freedom of worship in all places where they had had churches by the previous year, except in Paris; he also guaranteed their security by granting them all the fortified towns they had held in 1597 • Henry’s reign was wise and prosperous • Henry was assassinated in 1610 by a Catholic fanatic who was convinced that he was still a Protestant heretic