The Cold War: Hot Wars “Second Cold War Front [would be] in Asia.”
Hot War? • What is a Hot War? • How is it different from a “Cold War?” • Why are Hot Wars important to remember in the Cold War Unit?
Princess Bride clip • Background: • Girl and Boy fall madly in love. They are separated, Girl thinks the Boy is dead. Girl is betrothed to a Prince, and she is captured in order to cause a war between the Prince’s nation and a neighboring nation… Her capture is fighting a mind game with a Masked Man…. • Speaking of Wars…. Where wouldn’t you want to fight a war? • Anywhere particularly in the World? • Certain terrains? Locals? • Listen VERY closely to the little man. What does he say that connects to the Cold War???
Korea- Brief History • Annexed by Japan 1910 • USSR invaded Manchuria, going straight into Korea (beginning August 1945) • After WWII, it was decided that the 38th Parallel (an arbitrary point) would divide North (USSR) from South (US)….
After Japan Surrenders in WWII • First American soldiers: 1945, September • Japanese were used to help govern Korea—not Koreans
Reconstruction after WWII • Economic chaos and hardship • Inflation • Poverty • Civil Disturbances! • Ultimate Goal: Re-unification of N & S • As time continued, it was moved farther from possible, yet there was still a continued expressed desire to reunite
Syngman Rhee • Middle class, • US Doctorate • Appealed to US; Koreans gave little support • Positives (US POV): • Anti-Communist • Perfect English • Not present during Japanese Occupation
Rhee Con’t • Became Corrupt and Ruthless • No interest in popular democracy • No interest in personal freedoms • Yet, was still considered the best option that the US had to rule in South Korea….
USSR & N Korea • Feb 1947 – People’s Assembly of North Korea • Kim II Sung: • Elected chairman • Strongly opposed Japanese occupation • 1945 lead Korean Unit in Red Army • Land reform (tenant farmers given own land) • Viciously put down all Anti-Communist opposition
Jan 1949 • UN demanded elections take place • USSR refused • South participated • Communists in south boycotted • Repression of Communists • ((Were the results true??)) • 1949, Aug – Rhee becomes President
Interactions B/W N and S • “major excursions” across 38th • Tensions increase • N= Propaganda predicted invasion • S= Communist arrested and imprisoned • By June 1949, both Soviet and US forces had withdrawn from Korea
Kim’s Intentions… • Wanted to invade South • Stalin would not back him • Honoring WWII treaties
Why did Stalin Consent finally? • Stalin consented when: • Detonated first USSR A-bomb ( Aug 1949) • Communism Takes over China • Thought US would be hesitant to enter a war so far away, even with the threat of the spread of communism
Stalin and Kim • Stalin pledged military and technical assistance • BUT dictated day of Invasion (June 25th, 1950) • WHY? • To pull out Soviet Advisors • WHY?!?!?
June 25th, 1950 • North invaded on pretext of Southern launching an “armed” incursion • Was a total Surprise • Rhee outnumbered and outmatched • Within hours, South was retreating • US State Department agreed that this aggressive action would not be tolerated
UN Involvement • Condemned Invasion • 38th Parallel withdrawal • June 27th- Military assistance from UN members • Truman – “Police action” • Ultimately: UN providing Multinational support for Rhee’s weak and corrupt gov’t • USSR in UN??
Beginning of US Involvement • Previous predictions ((fears?)) of Soviet aggression were coming true! • Seen as Soviet Plot to overthrow Asian democracies ((Communist Conspiracy?!)) • Reality: Stalin was complying with an over ambitious ally and utilizing a perceived weakness in US
General MacArthur • War Hero • Previously declared that Asia would be where Democracy would fight against the spread of Communism
Korean War • South: Weak military and Gov’t • Army fled, like civilians did • S army blew up bridges—killing civilians– to prevent the N from following • While pursuing, N executed Rhee sympathizers
US Troops • Not Prepared, No Battle Plan Flown in from Japan • First US-Communist Confrontation resulted in a miserable US defeat, time and time again. • Missing anti-tank artillery • US winning only in the skies • Truman: “Aggression must be met firmly” • July 7th> MacArthur is titled “Supreme Commander of the UN Force”
US Congress • Expanded Presidential Powers • Expanded Draft • Recalled previous duty soldiers (WWII) • Increases Military Expenditures by 5 times
Communist Forces Go South • They quickly become over extended • Moved too quickly to form stable and secure supply lines • US “dug in” at Pusan, creating the Pusan Perimeter
South Korea Finally Responds • “Complete mobilization of the Korean People” • Meaning? • Without training • Civilian Men rounded up • Thrown to front lines
UN Force Responds, too • MacArthur formulates and launches a beach attack 150 miles behind enemy lines • “it will not fail” • Capital recaptured (Sep 25th) • 50,00 civilians died
UN and US meet • Move North/ Northeast, to recapture South Korea • North Army beginning to dissolve
Stalin? • Withdraws military advisors • Tells Kim to start planning for evacuation
What to do now…? (US version) • UN forces reach the 38th Parallel • Invade North? Or be happy to have South? • MacArthur & Rhee • They hadn’t gone this far to stop where the tensions began • Re-unification and Re-habilitation of Korea
What to do now..? (USSR version) • Stalin was more disappointed with Kim, and completely withdraws aid • China (who was also frustrated with Kim) was told to aid Korea • Advised Korea to use guerilla tactics to fight • Dropped international hints to their intentions of aiding Korea
US and China • China hints that any farther and they would use troops • US believed it was a bluff • Mid-October- Chinese Army volunters fighting with Koreans and meet UN and US troops • MacArthur pushes troops northward…
US/UN clash with China • Upon getting closer to the boarder, China attacked. • Despite heavy casualties, China won. • Full-scale war with China?!?! • China pressed southward, recapturing North’s capital • Seoul (capital S) falls into Chinese control again (Jan 4th, 1951)
Turning of Tides • February – UN troops reinvigorated • March – Seoul recaptured • MacArthur advocates Chinese invasion • He is shortly replaced • Why: • US regarded Korea as limited operation and didn’t want to start a direct confrontation with Soviet Union
End in sight… • April 1951 – Stalemate was reached, at the 38th • Armistice talks began July 1951, but flounder after 6 weeks of no agreements
Fall 1951 • Troops have dug in, fighting resumes • Like trench warfare from WWI, with modern technology • MiG-15 Soviet fighters used, even flown by Russians • Americans ignored this, fearing open fight with Russia
North Korea, fall 1951 • 600,000 tons of bombs dropped • Industry moves underground • Workers encouraged to increase production • Nationalism, proud of standing up to US
Stalin, China and Kim • Despite continuous requests for military aid, Stalin reuses a majority • Fear of causing war with US • China was given hardware, but had to pay for it
The end…. • Armistice talks begin October 1951 • Lasts 18 months • Atrocities on POWs • Dwight D. Eisenhower elected 1952 • Stalin dies March 1953 • New leadership decided in 2 weeks that Korea had to end • Mao (China) decided the same…
Rhee causing Problems • Increased fighting June 1953 • Eisenhower • Bombs dams, threatens Nuclear bombs against China • Rhee opens POW gates (South) • Churchill cables US saying Rhee needs to leave office
Results: • US: 54,000 dead, 100,000 injured • UN forces: 3,000 dead, 12,000 injured • North: 1 million deaths • Chinese: 112,000 (maybe double?) • 5 million homeless civilians in South • Major cities flattened • Japan’s economy boomed during; S Korea’s boomed a generation later
Vietnam Beginnings: The Dirty War • Mid-1800s – French occupation Began • May 1954 – France could no longer hold out against Vietnamese nationalists • After WWII defeat, returned to Indochina to retain colonial powers
Ho Chi Minh • Leader of the League for the Independence of Vietnam (Viet Minh) • Dedicated North Vietnamese Communist • Declared Vietnam’s independence after Japan’s surrender (WWII) • USSR and China supplied heavy weapons and ammunition
US Decision for Involvement • Indochina labeled as being declared devoid of decisive military objectives • Eisenhower: “row of dominoes” • “The possible consequences of the loss are just incalculable to the free world.” • Included: Laos, Cambodia, Burma, Thailand, India • Communist Conspiracy • Strengthening of the Communist bloc
North Vietnam • Ho Chi Minh • Land reform, education, health care • Broadened popular support • More extreme Communist take over: • Private land confiscated • Pilloried, labor camps, or executed • A million refugees flee Communist North for the South
After France Left • Ngo Dinh Diem took over: Republic of Vietnam • Catholic, • Confucian, • Anti-communist • Religiously intolerant • He ruled like an Emperor
Ngo Dinh Diem • Arrest detains opponents (mainly Communists sympathizers) • Within a few years Viet Minh were eliminated from South Vietnam • Ignored and abolished elections (1956) • He would appoint officials • He was fearful of communists winning the elections