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  1. Chapter 1 Computers and Digital Basics

  2. Chapter Contents • Section A: All Things Digital • Section B: Digital Devices • Section C: Digital Data Representation • Section D: Digital Processing • Section E: Password Security Chapter 1: Computers and Digital Basics

  3. All Things Digital • The Digital Revolution • Convergence • Digital Society Chapter 1: Computers and Digital Basics

  4. The Digital Revolution • The digital revolution is an ongoing process of social, political, and economic change brought about by digital technology, such as computers and the Internet • A constellation of technologies, including digital electronics, computers, communications networks, the Web, and digitization are fueling the digital revolution Chapter 1: Computers and Digital Basics

  5. The Digital Revolution • Digital electronics use electronic circuits to represent data (bits? bytes?) • Today, digital electronic devices include computers, portable media players such as iPods, digital cameras and camcorders, cell phones, radios and televisions, GPSs, DVD and CD players, e-book readers, and arcade games Chapter 1: Computers and Digital Basics

  6. The Digital Revolution Household Ownership of Personal Computers in the U.S. Chapter 1: Computers and Digital Basics

  7. The Digital Revolution • The second phase of the digital revolution materialized when the Internet was opened to public use • E-mail • Bulletin boards • Chat groups • Blogs • Online social networks Chapter 1: Computers and Digital Basics

  8. The Digital Revolution • A computer network is a group of computers linked by wired or wireless technology to share data and resources (what is the Internet?) • The Web (www) is a collection of linked documents, graphics, and sounds that can be accessed over the Internet • Cyberspace is a term that refers to entities that exist largely within computer networks • Digitization is the process of converting text, numbers, sound, photos, and video into data that can be processed by digital devices Chapter 1: Computers and Digital Basics

  9. Convergence • Technological convergence is a process by which several technologies with distinct functionalities evolve to form a single product • Convergence tends to offer enhanced functionality and convenience Chapter 1: Computers and Digital Basics

  10. Convergence Chapter 1: Computers and Digital Basics

  11. Digital Society • Digital technology is an important factor in global and national economies, in addition to affecting the economic status of individuals • Globalization can be defined as the worldwide economic interdependence of countries that occurs as cross-border commerce increases and as money flows more freely among countries • Individuals are affected by the digital divide, a term that refers to the gap between people who have access to technology and those who do not • Digital technology permeates the very core of modern life Chapter 1: Computers and Digital Basics

  12. Quick Quiz Digital Revolution • The ______________ is an ongoing process of social, political, and economic change brought about by digital technology, such as computers and the Internet. • True/False: Bulletin boards are personal journals posted online for general public access. • _______ property refers to the ownership of certain types of information, ideas, or representations. • Digital • Intellectual • Online • Licensed Chapter 1: Computers and Digital Basics

  13. Digital Devices • Computer Basics • Personal Computers, Servers, Mainframes, and Supercomputers • PDAs, Portable Players, and Smart Phones • Microcontrollers Chapter 1: Computers and Digital Basics

  14. Computer Basics • A computer is a multipurpose device that accepts input, processes data, stores data, and produces output, all according to a series of stored instructions Chapter 1: Computers and Digital Basics

  15. Computer Basics • Computer input is whatever is typed, submitted, or transmitted to a computer system • Output is the result produced by a computer • Data refers to the symbols that represent facts, objects, and ideas • Computers manipulate data in many ways, and this manipulation is called processing • Central Processing Unit (CPU) • Microprocessor Chapter 1: Computers and Digital Basics

  16. Computer Basics • Memory is an area of a computer that temporarily holds data waiting to be processed, stored, or output • Storage is the area where data can be left on a permanent basis when it is not immediately needed for processing (examples?) • A file is a named collection of data that exists on a storage medium • The series of instructions that tells a computer how to carry out processing tasks is referred to as a computer program • Software Chapter 1: Computers and Digital Basics

  17. Computer Basics • A stored program is a series of instructions for a computing task can be loaded into a computer’s memory and executed by the computer to perform a task or tasks • Allows you to switch between tasks • Distinguishes a computer from other simpler devices Examples? Chapter 1: Computers and Digital Basics

  18. Computer Basics • Application software is a related set of computer programs that helps a person carry out a task and get work done on a computer • System software allows the computer to operate (basic tasks) and monitor itself in order to function efficiently • Operating system (OS) Chapter 1: Computers and Digital Basics

  19. Personal Computers, Servers, Mainframes, and Supercomputers • A personal computer is a microprocessor-based computing device designed to meet the computing needs of an individual Chapter 1: Computers and Digital Basics

  20. Personal Computers, Servers, Mainframes, and Supercomputers • The term workstation has two meanings: • An ordinary personal computer that is connected to a network • A powerful desktop computer used for high-performance tasks Chapter 1: Computers and Digital Basics

  21. Personal Computers, Servers, Mainframes, and Supercomputers • A videogame console, such as Nintendo’s Wii, Sony’s PlayStation, or Microsoft’s Xbox, are not generally referred to as personal computers because of their history as dedicated game devices Chapter 1: Computers and Digital Basics

  22. Personal Computers, Servers, Mainframes, and Supercomputers • The purpose of a server is to serve clientcomputers on a network (such as the Internet or a home network) by supplying them with data or application support • A mainframe computer (or simply a mainframe) is a large and expensive computer capable of simultaneously processing data for hundreds or thousands of users • A computer falls into the supercomputer category if it is, at the time of construction, one of the fastest computers in the world • A compute-intensive problem is one that requires massive amounts of data to be processed using complex mathematical calculations What is an input/output-intensive problem?? Examples?? Chapter 1: Computers and Digital Basics

  23. Personal Computers, Servers, Mainframes, and Supercomputers Chapter 1: Computers and Digital Basics

  24. Microcontrollers • A microcontroller is a special-purpose microprocessor that is built into the machine it controls • Microcontrollers can be embedded in all sorts of everyday devices Examples? Chapter 1: Computers and Digital Basics

  25. Quick Quiz microcontroller • A (n) ______________ is a special-purpose microprocessor that is built into the machine it controls. • True/False: Just about any personal computer, workstation, mainframe, or supercomputer can be configured to perform the work of a server. • Any software or digital device that requests data from a server is referred to as a(n) _______. • minicomputer • client • mainframe • terminal Chapter 1: Computers and Digital Basics

  26. Digital Data Representation • Data Representation Basics • Representing Numbers, Text, and Pictures • Quantifying Bits and Bytes • Circuits and Chips Chapter 1: Computers and Digital Basics

  27. Data Representation • Data representation refers to the form in which data is stored, processed, and transmitted • Digital devices work with distinct and separate data (discrete, on/off) • Analog devices work with continuous data Chapter 1: Computers and Digital Basics

  28. Representing Numbers, Text, and Pictures • Numeric data • Binary number system • Character data • ASCII, Extended ASCII, EBCDIC, and Unicode • Digitizing is the process of converting analog data into digital format • Bit = Binary Digit • on or off, 1 or 0 Sound waves….. Images…. Chapter 1: Computers and Digital Basics

  29. Data Representation Extended ASCII? Chapter 1: Computers and Digital Basics

  30. Quantifying Bits and Bytes Chapter 1: Computers and Digital Basics

  31. Circuits and Chips • An integrated circuit (computer chip) is a super-thin slice of semiconducting material packed with microscopic circuit elements Chapter 1: Computers and Digital Basics

  32. Circuits and Chips • Bits take the form of electrical pulses that can travel over circuits • System board Chapter 1: Computers and Digital Basics

  33. Digital Processing • Programs and Instruction Sets • Processor Logic Chapter 1: Computers and Digital Basics

  34. Programs and Instruction Sets • Computers, portable media players, handheld computers, and smart phones all work with digital data • Computer programmers create programs that control digital devices. These programs are usually written in a high-level programming language • The human-readable version of a program, created in a high-level language by a programmer is called source code Examples of high-level programming languages? Chapter 1: Computers and Digital Basics

  35. Programs and Instruction Sets Chapter 1: Computers and Digital Basics

  36. Programs and Instruction Sets • A collection of preprogrammed activities a microprocessor is hardwired to perform is called an instruction set • The list of codes for a microprocessor’s instruction set, called machine language, can be directly executed by that processor’s circuitry (Note: machine language is specific/unique to a given microprocessor architecture) • The end product is called machine code • 1s and 0s Chapter 1: Computers and Digital Basics

  37. Programs and Instruction Sets • An op code (short for operation code) is a command word for an operation such as add, compare, or jump. • The operand for an instruction specifies the data (or the address of the data) for the operation. • In the following example, the op code might mean Add and the operand is 1, so the instruction means Add 1! • 000000100 00000001 Op code Operand Chapter 1: Computers and Digital Basics

  38. Programs and Instruction Sets A simple few lines of source code in a high-level programming language often results in multiple machine language instructions. Chapter 1: Computers and Digital Basics

  39. Processor Logic • The ALU (arithmetic logic unit) is the part of the microprocessor that performs arithmetic and logical operations • The ALU uses registers to hold data that is being processed • The microprocessor’s control unit fetches each instruction, just as you get each ingredient out of a cupboard or the refrigerator (control/flow operations) • The term instruction cycle refers to the process in which a computer executes a single instruction Chapter 1: Computers and Digital Basics

  40. Processor Logic Chapter 1: Computers and Digital Basics

  41. Processor Logic Chapter 1: Computers and Digital Basics

  42. Quick Quiz Integrated Circuit (IC) • A(n) __________________ is a super-thin slide of semiconducting material packed with microscopic circuit elements, such as wires, transistors, capacitors, logic gates, and resistors. • True/False: The machine language used by digital computers is expressed as sequences of human-readable characters. • A prefix which refers to a million bytes of storage is ______. • kilo- • giga- • mega- • tera- Chapter 1: Computers and Digital Basics

  43. Chapter 1 Complete Computers and Digital Basics