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MEXICO. NATURAL ENVIRONMENTS. LANDFORMS. Mexico is three times the size of Texas Country is mostly central Plateau Plateau surrounded by three mountain ranges Sierra Madre Oriental in east Sierra Madre Occidental in west Sierra Madre del Sur along southern Pacific coast

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    2. LANDFORMS • Mexico is three times the size of Texas • Country is mostly central Plateau • Plateau surrounded by three mountain ranges • Sierra Madre Oriental in east • Sierra Madre Occidental in west • Sierra Madre del Sur along southern Pacific coast • At south end of Plateau is Valley of Mexico where Mexico city is located • City is about 7500 feet above sea level • Area tectonically active resulting in earthquakes and volcanoes

    3. LANDFORMS, cont. Southern Mexico small mountain ranges, narrow valleys and volcanoes difficult travel overland Isthmus: narrow strip of land connecting two larger pieces of land Southern Mexico becomes Isthmus connecting North and South America Yucatan Peninsula is flattest region with few rivers because of waters desire to run through limestone instead of across it

    4. NATURAL RESOURCES • Few rivers in Mexico • Mineral resources • Silver, gold, iron, mercury and lead • Petroleum • Most valuable natural resource • Along Gulf of Mexico have large fields of natural gas and oil • Most oil exported to US


    6. GREATER MEXICO CITY • Cultural, economic and political center of Mexico • ¼ of Mexico’s population in this area • Bulk of GDP in this area • Very wealth and very poor, very few middle class people • Huge air pollution problem because city is surrounded by mountains that trap pollution

    7. CENTRAL MEXICO • Northwest of Mexico City • Early Spanish settlements located here • Agricultural center of Mexico • Have small family farms and emerging agribusiness • Produce cash crops like fruits and vegetables that they sell to the US

    8. GULF LOWLANDS AND SOUTHERN MEXICO • Hot humid climate has limited settlement • Today many forests have been cleared for farming and settlement is increasing • Have oil and natural gas deposits • Yucatan Peninsula in this area and is Mexico’s poorest region • Villages are small and maintain the greatest amount of traditional Mexican culture • Increasing in tourist popularity

    9. NORTHERN MEXICO • Large, dry region • Has become very developed due to increased industrialization and improved infrastructure • Impact of US on region and this region on US is huge

    10. FUTURE CHALLENGES • Politics becoming more democratic • NAFTA has increased economic growth but economic inequality still major concern • Huge poverty problem • Migration to the US is huge problem • Need to reduce crime • Country needs improved infrastructure to compete with neighboring US

    11. Central America and Caribbean • Costa Rica and ecotourism • Nicaragua and Guatamala in periods of long violence and civil war • Poverty • Panama canal back in Panama’s hands • Caricom and economic development






    17. THE PAMPAS


    19. History • Land Bridge • Inca: Pissarro • Spanish vs. Portuguese • 1494 Treaty of Tordesillas • Colonialism • Independence • Spanish colonies independent between 1810-1830 • Uruguay buffer state between Argentina and Brazil • 1822 Brazil declares independence

    20. Interesting Facts • Bolivia has two capitals • La Paz is administrative capital • Sucre is constitutional capital • Suriname is 37% Hindu from India • Bolivia has had over 200 coups since 1825 • Venezuela was founding member of OPEC • Machu Picchu in Peru is one of oldest pre-Columbian cities ever discovered

    21. Current Issues • Poverty and slum cities • Economic disparity • Urbanization • Desertification • Rainforest destruction • Between May 2000 and August 2005, more than 132,000 square kilometers of forest and since 1970 over 600,000 square kilometers cut down • Indigenous peoples

    22. Current Issues with America • 1820 Monroe Doctrine • 1904 Roosevelt Corollary • Currently, most South American countries are starting to “lean left” • People disillusioned by corruption and failure to prosper • Leftist organizations tend to be highly organized with charismatic leaders • Washington backed policies haven’t really worked like free trade and privatization • Hugo Chavez • Castro • Outcomes?