Mexico Unit 5, Chapter 7
What are pull factors influencing migration to Mexico City? Better economic activities Better healthcare Better? How are these different than the push factors that bring people to the city? Rural land policies. As land was purchased around them by wealthy landowners people decided to move to the city.
What challenges has rural-to-urban migration created for the government of Mexico City? Underground economies: that are not taxed or regulated People do not have access to healthcare and education Lack of infrastructure Underground aquifers are being depleted causing city to sink Inadequate sewer facilities lead to air and water pollution Landfills are closed Shanty towns are built in environmentally sensitive zones
What can be done? Write a paragraph explaining how environmentally friendly policies could improve life in Mexico.
Physical Geography of Mexico Chapter 7.1
Landforms • Mexico is the southern most country in North America and shares it’s entire border with the United States. • Mexico is considered a land bridge – a strip of land that connects 2 large land masses enabling migration of plants and animal to new areas. What land masses do Mexico connect?
Western Mexico Is part of the Pacific Ring of Fire. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KqrpkgKD5ko • This creates areas of seismic activity – relating to or caused by an earthquake
Sierra Madre Occidental Northwestern edge of Mexico Cut by westward flowing rivers and streams These formed deep canyons, the largest is Barranca Del Cobre
Sierra Madre Oriental Southern Extension of the Rocky Mountains Average Mountain height is between 8,000-9,000 ft.
Plateau’s • These sit in between the 2 mountain ranges. • They have moderate temperatures • Largest and most densely populated region • Northern Plateau: which is home to several large cities: Mexico City and Guadalajara • Central Plateau: considered the breadbasket of Mexico.
How has the geography of Mexico affected the way people use the land? • It has made it possible to support large communities • Ample grazing and farmland • Tourism
Water Systems • Northern Mexico has a dry climate. Permanent waterways are rare. • High Mountain ranges and plateaus create vertical temperate climate zones – a climate zone that occurs as elevation increases, with its own natural vegetation and crops. • Rio Grande (Rio Bravo del Norte): Border between Mexico and Texas • The Lerma River • Lake Chapala (largest natural Lake in Mexico)
Water systems continued • The Gulf of Mexico • The Gulf of California divides the Baja Peninsula from the northern coast of Mexico • These waterways support an amazing diversity of Aquatic animals: whales, giant pacific manta rays, endangered leatherback turtles, and great white sharks.
Climates, Biomes, and Resources • There are three factors that influence Mexico’s climate • Regional high pressure systems • Keep north and central parts of Mexico dry and cause occasional droughts • Northeast trade winds • Responsible for the pattern of tropical storms
Vertical Climate Zones • Create mild climates found throughout the Southern part of Mexico
Minerals • Silver (they are the worlds leading producers) • Zinc • Bauxite • Lead • Gold • Mercury
Petroleum • Mexico is a leading petroleum producing country • It accounts for a large share of foreign-exchange earnings • 13th in crude oil production • ¾ of Mexico’s electricity is powered by thermal power plants fired up by oil and gas • 1/10 of their electrical power by nuclear power and wind, solar, energy, and biomass
Human Geography of Mexico Lesson 2
History and Government • Variations in the physical geography of Mexico led to the development of diverse cultures, languages, and civilizations among the indigenous people. • Northern half were nomadic • Southern half was geographically more diverse. • You have the Mayan Empire, Aztec Empire, Spanish conquest, Caudillo, Mexican Revolution, Current Government.
Mayan Empire Earliest and largest civilizations in Mexico They built huge stone buildings Ruled vast territories and engaged in long distance trade with other cultures Their descendants are still around and live close to the former empire. They maintain their ancestral languages and practice same cultural traditions.
Aztec Empire Aztec capital was Tenochtitlan the site of present day Mexico City They conquered others until they were conquered in 1519 by the Spanish Mestizos, people of mixed indigenous people and European descent populate this area, there are small groups that can trace their ancestry back to the Aztec people.
Spanish Conquest The Aztecs were conquered by a Spanish Conquistador, is Spanish for "conqueror”; Spanish soldier who participated in Conquest of indigenous peoples of Latin America, Herman Cortes and his men They came because of Gold and Silver, they also found corn, tomatoes, chocolate.
Spanish Conquest continued When the Spanish decided to settle here they took large tract of lands. They grew cash crops, farm product grown to be sold or traded rather than used by a farm family Mexico remained part of the Spanish empire for 3 centuries
Caudillo • In the late 1700’s they started protesting European rule • 1821 won independence • A new leader a Caudillo, or military dictator, emerged • In the 1800’s, Mexico tried to move to a democracy but the caudillos always figured out a way to return to power
Mexican Revolution • Overthrew the Caudillos in 1917 and a federal republic was established • Legislative, executive, and judicial • President was elected for 1term(6 years) • 1929 the Partido Revolucionario Institutional(PRI) was elected and established a corrupt monopoly. They were in Control for 70 years. • 2000 the opposition party, Partido Accion National(PAN) won • 2012 the PRI took office again
Mexico’s Current Government • Has many issues • Drug Cartel (new and old) • Indigenous people • Small farms • Under paid laborers • Corruption remains a common reality • A VERY small group of landowners rule Mexico
Population Patterns • The indigenous people of Mexico were a mixture of different groups and empires, having multiple languages and belief systems. • When the Spanish came they brought the catholic religion with them and introduced this to the indigenous population, this has made the process of syncretism, a blending of beliefs and practices from different religions into one faith, occur. • Today more than 78% of Mexican citizens live in urban areas. Mexico city is a Megacity, or a great city that makes up several large and small cities. The reason Mexico city is so important is because it is a primate city, a city that dominates a countries economy, culture and government and in which population is concentrated.
Society and Culture today Majority of Mexicans define themselves as Catholic Mexican culture highly values families, the majority of Mexican homes still hold three or four generations, this is called an extended family. Spanish culture established the tradition of male dominance
Economic activities • In the 1500’s Mexico was the center of the Spanish empire • Today, Mexico is still struggling to be an equal and free republic • Colonialism still influences Mexico’s economy.
Resources, Power, and Industry • As a newly industrialized country Mexico has the highest standard of living among all Latin American Country. • Mexico’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP), the value of goods and services produced within a country in a year, is the 12th highest globally. • Most land is owned by the wealthy. • Mexico’s diverse landscape presents a challenge to building a national transportation system • More than 1 million people cross back and forth between the borders each year • As of 2012, 70% of all Mexicans do not have internet access
Questions • What are 3 push factors from Mexico? • What are 3 pull factors to the United States?
NAFTA, Trade, and Maquiladoras • North American Free Trade Agreement(NAFTA) signed in 1992 by Mexico, United States and Canada • America and Japan have built factories in Mexico, companies outsource, the practice of subcontracting manufacturing work to outside companies, especially foreign or nonunion companies, work. • Maquiladoras, a manufacturing plant owned by a foreign country, they are normally located close to the border. They are also located in free trade zones, an area in a country which trade restrictions do not apply.
Managing Resources • Mexico’s ecosystems are experiencing the effects of global climate change and environmental destruction; increasing migration to urban centers is contributing to deforestation, the loss or destruction of forests, mainly for logging or farming. • Mexico is implempentingsustainable development projects, these are technological and economic growth that does not deplete the human and natural resources of a given area
Managing Resources continued • Only 12.7 percent or Mexico’s land is arable • The demand for water in the north is so high it is causing desertification • More than 50% of Mexico’s population live below the poverty line • Both rural and urban areas struggle to provide basic resources like clean water, electricity and garbage removal. • Buildings in Mexico City are tilting because the sinking or settling of land to a lower level in response to various natural and human-caused factors. This is called land subsidence
Human Impact • Rapid growth in the last century and high rates of poverty have made social development a constant challenge in Mexico. • Increased access to manufactured goods result in waste accumulation; increased carbon emissions results in air pollution causing chronic health conditions. • Because Mexico City is located in a valley the emissions are often trapped.
Addressing the Issues • Government investment in education and health services leads to a better educated and more literate population that demands more from government and from society • Border 2020 program is an environmental program that emphasizes regional and local approaches for decision making, priority setting, and project implementation. • The Reducing the Emissions from Deforestation and Forest degradation (REDD) is a program designed to use market and financial incentives to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. • MueveteenBici: launched in 2007, in Mexico city, the program closes major thruways to cars and gives right of ways to cyclists.