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Chapter 1. INTRODUCTION TO MANAGEMENT AND ORGANIZATIONS. © Prentice Hall, 2002. 1- 1. Who Are Managers?. Manager someone who works with and through other people by coordinating their work activities in order to accomplish organizational goals

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Chapter 1

INTRODUCTION

TO MANAGEMENT

AND

ORGANIZATIONS

© Prentice Hall, 2002

1-1


Who are managers l.jpg
Who Are Managers?

Manager

someone who works with and through other people by coordinating their work activities in order to accomplish organizational goals

changing nature of organizations and work has blurred the clear lines of distinction between managers and non-managerial employees

© Prentice Hall, 2002

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Who Are Managers? (cont.)

Managerial Titles

First-line managers - manage the work of non-managerial individuals who are directly involved with the production or creation of the organization’s products

Middle managers - all managers between the first-line level and the top level of the organization

manage the first-line managers

Top managers - responsible for making organization-wide decisions and establishing the plans and goals that affect the entire organization

© Prentice Hall, 2002

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Organizational Levels

Top

Managers

Middle

Managers

First-line

Managers

Non-managerial Employees

© Prentice Hall, 2002

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What Is Management?

Management

the process of coordinating work activities so that they are completed efficiently and effectively with and through other people

elements of definition

Process - represents ongoing functions or primary activities engaged in by managers

Coordinating - distinguishes a managerial position from a non-managerial one

© Prentice Hall, 2002

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What is Management? (cont.)

Management (cont.)

elements of definition

Efficiency - getting the most output from the least amount of inputs

“doing things right”

concerned with means

Effectiveness - completing activities so that organizational goals are attained

“doing the right things”

concerned with ends

© Prentice Hall, 2002

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Efficiency and Effectiveness in Management

Efficiency (Means)

Effectiveness (Ends)

Resource

Usage

Goal

Attainment

Low Waste

High Attainment

Management Strives For:

Low resource waste (high efficiency)

High goal attainment (high effectiveness)

© Prentice Hall, 2002

1-7


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What Do Managers Do?

Management Functions and Process

most useful conceptualization of the manager’s job

Planning - defining goals, establishing strategies for achieving those goals, and developing plans to integrate and coordinate activities

Organizing- determining what tasks are to be done, who is to do them, how the tasks are to be grouped, who reports to whom, and where decisions are made

Leading - directing and motivating all involved parties and dealing with employee behavior issues

Controlling - monitoring activities to ensure that they are going asplanned

© Prentice Hall, 2002

1-8


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What Do Managers Do? (cont.)

Management Functions and Process (cont.)

Management process

set of ongoing decisions and work activities in which managers engage as they plan, organize, lead, and control

managerial activities are usually done in a continuous manner

© Prentice Hall, 2002

1-9


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What Do Managers Do? (cont.)

Management Roles

specific categories of managerial behavior

Interpersonal- involve people and duties that are ceremonial and symbolic in nature

Informational- receiving, collecting, and disseminating information

Decisional- revolve around making choices

emphasis that managers give to the various roles seems to change with their organizational level

© Prentice Hall, 2002

1-10


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What Do Managers Do? (cont.)

Management Skills

Technical- knowledge of and proficiency in a certain specialized field

Human - ability to work well with other people both individually and in a group

Conceptual - ability to think and to conceptualize about abstract and complex situations

see the organization as a whole

understand the relationships among subunits

visualize how the organization fits into its broader environment

© Prentice Hall, 2002

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What Do Managers Do? (cont.)

Managing Systems

System - a set of interrelated and interdependent parts arranged in a manner that produces a unified whole

provides a more general and broader picture of what managers do than the other perspectives provide

Closed system - not influenced by and do not interact with their environment

Open system - dramatically interact with their environment

organizations - take in inputs from their environments

transform or process inputs into outputs

outputs are distributed into the environment

© Prentice Hall, 2002

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The Organization As An Open System

Environment

System

Inputs

Transformation

Outputs

Raw materials

Human resources

Capital

Technology

Information

Products and services

Financial results

Information

Human results

Employee’s work

activities

Management

activities

Technology and

operations methods

Environment

Feedback

© Prentice Hall, 2002

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What Do Managers Do? (cont.)

Managing Systems (cont.)

managers must

coordinate various work activities

ensure that interdependent parts work together

recognize and understand the impact of various external factors

decisions and actions taken in one organizational area will affect other areas and vice versa

© Prentice Hall, 2002

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What Do Managers Do? (cont.)

Managing in Different and Changing Situations

require managers to use different approaches and techniques

Contingency perspective - different ways of managing are required in different organizations and different circumstances

stresses that there are no simplistic or universal rules

contingency variable

© Prentice Hall, 2002

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EXHIBIT 1.8: POPULAR CONTINGENCY VARIABLES

© Prentice Hall, 2002

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What Is An Organization?

Organization

a deliberate arrangement of people to accomplish some specific purpose

elements of definition

each organization has a distinct purpose

each organization is composed of people

all organizations develop some deliberate structure

today’s organizations have adopted:

flexible work arrangements

open communications

greater responsiveness to changes

© Prentice Hall, 2002

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EXHIBIT 1.10: THE CHANGING ORGANIZATION

© Prentice Hall, 2002

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Why Study Management?

Universality of Management

management is needed

in all types and sizes of organizations

at all organizational levels

in all work areas

management functions must be performed in all organizations

consequently, have vested interest in improving management

© Prentice Hall, 2002

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EXHIBIT 1.11: UNIVERSAL NEED FOR MANAGEMENT

© Prentice Hall, 2002

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Why Study Management? (cont.)

The Reality of Work

most people have some managerial responsibilities

most people work for a manager

  • Challenges of Being a Manager

    • - being a manager is hard work

    • - must deal with a variety of personalities

    • - must motivate workers in the face of uncertainty

© Prentice Hall, 2002

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Why Study Management? (cont.)

Rewards of Being a Manager

create an environment that allows others to do their best work

provide opportunities to think creatively

help others find meaning and fulfillment

meet and work with a variety of people

© Prentice Hall, 2002

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