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GENDER © 2003, John B. Pryor, Ph.D. Illinois State University
Levi Suydam • In 1843 Levi Suydam, a 23-year-old resident of Salisbury, Connecticut, asked the town's board of selectmen to allow him to vote as a Whig in a hotly contested local election. • Tories contested Suydam’s gender. • The selectmen brought in a physician, one Dr. William Barry, to examine Suydam and settle the matter. Presumably, upon encountering a phallus and testicles, the good doctor declared the prospective voter male. • With Suydam safely in their column, the Whigs won the election by a majority of one. • Barry later discovered that Levi had vaginal opening and menstruated. He also had many feminine behaviors.
biological social Gender
Unusual case of David Reimer • Identical twin, • genetic male • Penis burned off • during circumcision • Surgically altered to • resemble a female • Given female • Hormones • •Raised as a female
Unusual case of David Reimer When told at 14 about his past, decided to have surgery to return being a male. Late he married to a woman who already had children. Ultimately, David Committed suicide. Unhappy childhood, felt different, not accepted by boys or girls
Gender Two aspects of gender: 1) Gender Role 2) Gender Identity
Money & Ehrhardt (1972) Five variables that contribute to a person’s gender role and gender identity: 1) Chromosomal Gender 2) Gonadal Gender 3) Hormonal Gender 4) Morphological Gender 5) Assigned Gender John Money
FIVE CHROMOSOMAL ANOMALIES 1) X (Turner’s syndrome) 2) XXX 3) XYY 4) XXY (Klinefelter’s syndrome) 5) XXXY
TWO HORMONAL ANOMALIES IN GENETIC FEMALES 1) Progestin-Induced Hermaphroditism (PIH) 2) Adrenogenital Syndrome (AGS) -also called congenital adrenal hyperplasia
TWO HORMONAL ANOMALIES IN GENETIC MALES 1) Androgen-Insensitivity Syndrome 2) Guevodoces - 5-Alpha Reductase Syndrome
MONEY’S HYPOTHESIS: Prenatal hormones predispose people to certain gender-linked behaviors in later life. Four Groups of Females: 1) Turner’s Syndrome 2) Progestin-Induced Hermaphroditism 3) Adrenogenital Syndrome 4) Normal Females
Transsexualism • a gender identity disorder • 3-4 more times more common among genetic males • no proven genetic, hormonal, or psychopathological antecedants • New research has found that male-to-female transsexuals have a smaller BSTc region in their hypothalamuses than non-transsexual men. The hypothalamus is involved in the regulation of sexual behavior. This region is typically larger in men than in women.
SEX CHANGES at Gender Identity Clinics 1) Psychosocial Treatment - Learning the gender role 2) Hormonal Treatment 3) Plastic Surgery
Some cultures do not have just a 2 category system 3rd Sex Female Male
Gender Catergories in Other Cultures Third Sex among Navajo
1.Nadle - Navajo 2.Bade' - Crow 3.Winkte - Lakota 4.Ihamana - Zuni 5.Mujerado - Laguna/Acoma 6.Siange - Winnebago 7.A-whock - Arapaho 8.Hemaneh - Cheyennes Native American terms for 3rd Sex
GENDER CATEGORIES IN OTHER CULTURES • both man and women - • Native American • Two-Spirit People • Berdache
This Navajo Berdache wore clothing that was distinct from both that of men and women
This Crow Berdache was named ‘Finds-them -and-kills- them’. He dressed as a man one day when he went to war with the men of his tribe.
GENDER CATEGORIES IN OTHER CULTURES India • Hindu cult of the Hijra • Males who amputate their penises • Dress and live as women • participate in fertility rituals • often make their living as prostitutes
Hijra at home 3 Hijra going to temple
Blessing infant Dancing At Festival