Gender • characteristics, whether biologically or socially influenced, by which people define male and female.
Gender RoleI'm Glad I'm a Boy-- • A set of expected behaviours for males and females • List some of the “normal” gender roles. What gender role is she breaking?
Gender Identity • one’s own sense of being male or female. • realized through gender-typing : acquiring the traditional masculine or feminine roles
Social Learning Theory Lets use Sammy as an example.
Social Learning Theory Baseball. Sammy imitates my behavior. I reward Sammy. I punish Sammy Sammy’s Mom puts on makeup. Sammy copies her.
Gender Schema Theory • Schema: a concept or framework of how we organize information. • Develop schemas for gender. • See the world through the lens of your gender schemas. Boy’s don’t do this, that’s for girls. Yeah, that’s cool!!!! I want to do that.
Behavior Genetics • The study of the power and limitations of genes on who we are.
Heritability • The proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes.
Twin Studies • Identical Twins – same egg, same genes • Fraternal Twins – different egg, different genes
Which of the following pairs is likely to be the most similar? Fraternal Twins (Together) Identical Twins (Apart) Fraternal Twins (Apart) Identical Twins (Together) Why?
Twin Studies: The Results • Twins, (especially identical) whether or not they are raised in the same environment are very much alike in many ways.