Gender and Mainstreaming Gender At – SIRD 20th May 2011
Getting to know each other • Name • Sex • Daughter / Son of • One responsibility at home
Objectives • Understand the concept of gender and related issues. • Understand gender mainstreaming in the context of Local Governance
Why Gender Training? • Because it concerns both men and women • It involves transformation of attitudes and practices in all societies. • Because when we work with communities, it’s essential to be sensitive to both men’s and women’s needs and issues • It touches all of us.
Difference between Sex & Gender • Sex refers to biologically determined differences between men and women that are universal. • They are established in nature. • They largely remain unchanged.
GENDER • Gender refers to the social roles andrelationsbetween women and men. • Unlike the sex of men or women that is biologically determined, gender roles of women and men aresocially constructed. • Such roles can changeover time and vary according to geographic location and social context.
Gender roles are learned behaviors in a given society/community or other social groups, that condition which activities, tasks and responsibilities are perceived as male and female
Gender • Gender is not “Sex” • Gender is not “Women” • Gender is a focus on the unequal relations between men and women
Division of workSame work - different value Women Stitching - at home Cooking - at home Cleaning - at home Healthcare - at home Men outside + Money = Tailor outside + Money = Cook outside + Money = Cleaner outside + Money = Doctor
Triple role of women • Productive • Reproductive • Community
Practical gender needs & Strategic gender needs • Practical Gender Needs: Facilitate in managing effectively the current roles more easily without changing the position in society • Strategic needs are related to changing the status quo
How gender works as a system Beliefs in society about women and men Gender norms Genderroles for men and women Sexual division of labor Different activities and tasks for men and women Differential Access to and control over resources Differential decision making and power
Socialization Socialization is a life long process through which individuals acquire a personal identity and social skills. This is a process through which a new born child is gradually transformed into a knowledgeable adult
Agents of Socialization • Family, Peer, School, Community, Media • Institutions- Religious, Political, Legal, • Economic, Political and Social Factors.
Patriarchal values and gender relations : Some Answers Patriarchy explains: • How our societies function? • How it controls women • It is a control by men. • Patriarchy has its roots in religion • In family traditions • It involves the idea that within a family there is a clear unwritten and unsaid hierarchy of need • It leads to certain mindsets and behaviour and this results in inequality.
Gender works against women and men • Even though men usually end up having more power and decision making ability through this system they are also under pressure to follow the pattern. • An individual man , though having more power than a similarly placed woman has to conform to behaviour, task, roles expectations
Situation of Women in the world • Women form almost half of the population of our country • Women work 2/3 of the world’s working hours, and produce ½ of the world’s food, yet earn only 10 per cent of the world’s income, and own less than 1 per cent of the world’s property. (UN) • Two-thirds of children denied primary education is girls, and 75 per cent of the world’s 876 million illiterate adults are women. Every extra year a girl spends at school could reduce child mortality by ten per cent. (UN, World’s Women) • More than half a million women die in pregnancy and childbirth every year: of these deaths, • Women hold only 14 per cent of parliamentary seats worldwide, and only eight per cent of the world’s cabinet ministers are women. • Domestic violence is the biggest cause of injury and death to women worldwide. Gender-based violence causes more deaths and disability among women aged 15 to 44 than cancer, malaria, traffic accidents, and war. (World Bank Discussion Paper)
Mainstreaming is • The word “Mainstream” as a noun means: ‘principal current of a river; prevailing trends in opinions, fashion etc’.As a verb, it indicates becoming part of the ‘mainstream’.
Gender Mainstreaming is • It is a strategy to ensure gender equality • It is an approach to governance that makes men’s and women’s concerns and experiences an integral part of the design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of policies in all sectors of society. • It is a strategy to promote strategic gender need
Equality and Equity • Equality is an ideal value • When the principle of equality is applied to unequals, inequality usually increases • Gender equality is a goal • Equity is an operational principle • Equity requires making special provisions for the powerless • Practicing gender equity is essential to achieve gender equality
Gender equality Absence of discrimination on the basis of a person's sex in opportunities and the allocation of resources or benefits or in access to services. Gender equity Fairness and justice in the distribution of benefits and responsibilities between women and men. The concept recognises that women and men have different needs and power and that these differences should be identified and addressed in a manner that rectifies the imbalance between the sexes.
Gender Mainstreaming is Cont……. • It is a strategy not only for attaining gender equality but for the sustainable development of societies as a whole.
Mainstreaming requires • Awareness of Participants • Sensitization of Participants • Enhancement of Decision making power of participants • Access to and Control of the participants on the developmental activities • Supportive environment
Understanding Development • Development is committed to the equality of all people. • Two Pillars of Development • Participation – Full involvement of people which affects their lives, regardless of gender, race , age , class or social disability. • Empowerment – Achieved by people themselves, through their own effort. • Power to, power with and power within women is key to development than power over
Approaches to Women’s Devt • Welfare • Anti – Poverty • Efficiency • Equity • Empowerment
Possible Areas of Involvement • Decision Making • Finance in the Home • Education of Children • Family Planning • Contribution to • Health of Children • Feeding of family • Production of food for family Consumption • Production of food for cash payment • Community Discussion • Agriculture • Water and Sanitation • School / education • Neighbourhood / Construction • Nationality • Political Representation • Political Involvement • Employment outside the Home • Industry • Business • Medical / nursing • Law • service industries
Factors obstructing women’s involvement. • Lack of formal education • Limited involvement in community action/ discussions • Poverty • Malnourishment • Heavy domestic workload • Mobility requires permission form males in the household • Religious practices / beliefs • Inequality in national laws • Previous negative experience of development • Difficulty in recruiting female workers • Child rearing responsibilities • Government austerity programmes resulting in less time and financ