gender • Refers to the SOCIAL characteristics that distinguish the sexes.
Social construction of gender • The social construction of gender is a subtle and complex process that includes: 1. tangible presentations of people
Social construction of gender • 2. a sexual division of labor between women’s and men’s work
Social construction of gender • 3. subtle behavioral and attitudinal expectations
Individuals are introduced to gender as they encounter differential expectations
Gender and Socialization • Socialization is the lifelong process of learning to become a member of the social world, beginning at birth and continuing until death
SOCIALIZATION • Socialization is a major part of what the family, education, religion and other institutions do to prepare individuals to be members of their social world
socialization • Interaction is the basic building block of socialization…. • Out of the process of interaction we learn culture and become members of society • Interaction shapes us into human beings with social selves (which are perceptions we have of who we are)
socialization • Socialization is necessary not only for the survival of the individual but also for the survival of society and its groups
SOCIALIZATION AND THEORY *most theories of socialization focus on micro-level processes (ie: how families, peer groups etc. teach us how to live in our respective cultures…. * There are important macro processes as well……….
SOCIALIZATION-FUNCTIONALISM • (functionalist) perspectives of socialization tend to see different levels of the social world operating to support each other (ex: boy and girl scouts stressing national values/patriotism)
SOCIALIZATION-CONFLICT THEORY • Conflict theorists believe that those who have power and privilege use socialization to manipulate individuals in the social world to support the interests of elites
Socialization and Symbolic Interactionism • For symbolic interactionists the central “product” of the process of socialization is the self……. • The self refers to the perceptions we have of who we are
SOCIALIZATION-SYMBOLIC INTERACTIONIST THEORY • Throughout the socialization process our “self concept” is derived from our perceptions of the way others are responding to us…
The self • George Herbert Mead-symbolic interactionists who felt individuals take others into account by imagining themselves in the position of the other, a process called “role-taking”…………
Mead and the Self • The self develops only with social experience • *the self is not part of the body and does not exist at birth • Mead rejected the idea that personality is guided by biological drives or biological maturation • *the self develops only as the individual interacts with others
Mead and the Self • *the key to the development of the self, is learning to take the role of the other • *infants respond to others through imitation • *as children learn to use language and other symbols, the self emerges in the form of play-significant others
We are introduced to gender as we are exposed to dissimilar treatment emphasizing differences
Differences between males and females-sexual dimorphism • Sexual dimorphism refers to marked differences in male and female biology besides the contrasts in breasts and genitals • Men and women differ not just in primary and secondary sexual characteristics, but in average weight, height and strength
The behavioral, attitudinal and status differences between men and women emerge from culture and society rather than from biology
Margaret Mead and Gender • Anthropologist Margaret Mead did early ethnographic study of variation in gender roles (Sex and Temperament in Three Primitive Societies) • Work based on fieldwork in three societies in Papua, New Guinea: Arapesh, Mundugumor, Tchambuli
Gender stereotypes-oversimplified but strongly held ideas about the characteristics of males and females
Gender stratification describes an unequal distribution of rewards between men and women reflecting their different positions in a hierarchy
Feminism • Feminism-the view that biology is not destiny and that stratification by gender is wrong and should be resisted • ARE YOU A FEMINIST?