Gender Women in Rural Agriculture By Daniela, Giuliana & Wenjie
In South Asia, women provide up to 90% of labor for rice cultivation. • In sub-Saharan Africa, women produce up to 80% of basic food stuffs both for household consumption and for sale. • Women constitute 53% of the agriculture in Egypt.
Fewer than 10% of women farmers in India, Nepal and Thailand own land. • Women received less than 10% of the credit awarded to male smallholders. • Only 15% of the world’s agricultural extension agents are women.
Contents How Does Gender Relate to MDGs Why Women Are Significant in Agriculture? Constraints How to Change the situation? Literature Review & Organizations
PartⅠ- Gender MDGs • MDG 1- Eradicate extreme hunger and poverty • MDG 2- Achieve Universal Primary Education • MDG 3- Promote Gender Equality and Empower Women • MDG 4 – Reduce Child Mortality • MDG 5 – Improve Maternal Health • MDG 6 – Combat HIV/AIDS, Malaria& Other Diseases • MDG 7 – Ensure environmental sustainability • MDG 8 – Develop a global partnership for development
Part Ⅱ- Why is Women’s Role in Rural Agriculture Important? • Women are the great majority of farm laborers (not owners) in Developing Nations • But, they do not profit from their labor • Therefore, by helping these women obtain higher status, development of the society as a whole is enhanced. • This can be done by giving them the resources to farm more effectively and increase productivity • Training • Property Rights • Access to Credit • Access to Organization • Technology (A New Green Revolution in Africa) • Education
Part Ⅱ- Results • Better Status for Women Farmers will: • Allow for guaranteed or greater harvests • Enhance food security for individual families • Create a surplus that can be sold for a profit • Ethiopia’s Communial Grain Storage Project • Increased outside income can: • Increase women’s bargining power within the family • Reduced Child mortality and increased child education
1.Gender-biased cultures (patriarchal societies) • Patriarchal control historically rooted • Role of religions • Implications for rural environment: land property rights (access to credit, services), farming decisions
2.Bargaining power • Intra household allocation • Impact on nutrition
Less educated Fewer resources Make adjustments -- decrease in production -- shifts to less nutritious food Malnutrition and Food insecurity 3.Feminization of Agriculture
4.Water and fuel wood • Great distances of fetching • Privatization of water • Lower-quality water • Deforestation
5. HIV/AIDS and other diseases • More at risk • Economic vulnerability • Unlikely to seek treatment
Proportion of adults aged 15 years and over livingwith HIV who are women, 1990, 2000 and 2007(Percentage)
Part Ⅳ - HOW TO ADDRESS GENDER ISSUES • Mobilization at political level (international, national, local) • Including gender into donors’ policies (aid effectiveness; indicators) • Gender mainstreaming into policies (e.g. PRSPs): assets, markets, • Increased availability of data disaggregated by gender and typology • Gender-responsive budgeting • Participatory, people-centered approach, agricultural extension approach (entitlements of rural women vs. men) • Mobilization at community level • Empowering of women (mechanisms of self-denial) • Participation to collective bodies; access to credit, inputs and markets
References – 1/2 The Millennium Development Goals Report 2008, United Nations, 2008 Gender in Agriculture Sourcebook, The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World Bank, IFAD, FAO, 2009 Empowering Women Through Livelihoods Orientade Agricultural Service Provision, A. J. E. Charman, 2008, UN-WIDER Research Paper Women and Food Security in South Asia, N. Ramachandran, 2006, UN-WIDER Research paper Is the nutritional status of males and females equally affected by Economic Growth? Evidence from Vietnam in the 1990s, V. Molini and M. Nubè, 2007, UN-WIDER Research Paper Progress of the World’s Women 2008/2009 - DAW The Importance of Women’s Status for Child Nutrition in Developing Countries Lisa C. Smith, Usha Ramakrishnan,Aida Ndiaye, Lawrence Haddad, and Reynaldo Martorelli, INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE, RESEARCH REPORT ABSTRACT131
References – 2/2 • EMPOWERING WOMEN TO ACHIEVE FOOD SECURITY, a 2020 vision for food, agriculture and environment, AGNES R. QUISUMBING AND RUTH S. MEINZEN-DICK - Girls Count, a global investment and action agenda, Ruth Levine Cynthia Lloyd Margaret Greene Caren Grown, INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE, Women-Still the Key to Food and Nutrition Security • Women in Agriculture and Rural Life: An International Bibliography Mary Gold,AnneB.Effland http://www.nal.usda.gov/afsic/wia/women.htm • Gendered Fields: Rural Women, Agriculture, And Environment (Rural Studies Series) Carolyn E. Sachs, Westview Press 1996 • Rural Women and Food Production in Sub-Saharan Africa, Ann Whitehead • Chapter 11 of ‘The Political Economy of Hunger’ Main Authors Jean Drèze, Amartya Kumar Sen, World Institute for Development Economics Research, Oxford University Press, 1991
Major Organizations Active in Gender • UNIFEM • DAW • IFAD • IFPRI • UNFPA • FAO
Group Discussion • How can Gender Equality be promoted? In some countries, due to religion, culture and history, the position of women is inferior to men. How can we break through these engrained barriers to achieve gender equality?