CH 21, sect. 4 – Nation Building in Latin America In Latin America society was divided into the following class structure: Peninsulares – born in Spain/Portugal, they lived temporarily in the Americas, they had the most power. Creoles – Born in the Americas, most were of European blood, ran the gov’t, they disliked the Peninsulares and being told what to do by the mother country.
Mestizos /Mullatos– People of mixed race: Europeans with Natives or Africans, had little power, but were the majority of the population. Natives – AKA Indians, were at the bottom of the class structure.
Revolt in Mexico: • Miguel Hidalgo, a parish priest, led mestizos and Indians to rebel against the Spanish in 1810. • The rebellion was crushed and Hidalgo was executed. • This event is commemorated as Mexican Independence Day – Sept. 16, 1810.
Impact of Hidalgo’s rebellion: • Peninsulares and creoles were terrified that mestizos and Indians rebelled. • As a result the two groups decided to overthrow Spanish rule as a way to preserve power. • In 1821 Mexico declared independence from Spain.
Revolts in South America: • Jose de San Martin: From Argentina, creole elite, liberated Argentina, Chile, and Peru from Spanish rule. • Simon Bolivar: From Venezuela, creole elite, liberated Venezuela, Columbia, Peru, and Ecuador. • They joined forces to defeat the Spanish at the Battle of Ayacucho on Dec. 9, 1824.
1824: Peru, Uruguay, Paraguay, Columbia, Venezuela, Argentina, Bolivia, and Chile are independent from Spain. • 1838-1839: Central American countries: Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Costa Rica, and Nicaragua gain independence. • 1822: Brazil declared independence from Portugal.
Impact of Latin American Independence: • Concert of Europe wanted to invade Latin America and restore Spanish control. • USA and Britain opposed this. • USA issued the Monroe Doctrine: Guaranteed Latin American independence and warned against European intervention.
Problems with nation building in Latin America: • Wars had led to loss of life, property, and livestock. • New nations went to war because of disputed boundaries. • National unity was difficult because of geography and lack of infrastructure (railroads, telegraph, roads)
The Caudillos: • Strong leaders who took over Latin America countries after independence. • Usually supported by the military and landowners. • Most were corrupt. • Some built roads, canals, ports, schools, etc. • Most harmed their countries.
New Imperialism and Inequality in Latin America: • Great Britain and the USA continued trade with Latin America after independence. • Latin American economies were dominated by outsiders. • Wealthy landowners still controlled everything. • They controlled the gov’t, courts, military. • Used plantations to make enormous profits. • Poverty was widespread for the masses.
United States in Latin America: • Spanish American War: 1898, USA gained control of Philippines, Cuba, Puerto Rico. • 1903: USA supported a rebellion that allowed Panama to break away from Columbia. • USA got land 10 miles wide from the Pacific to the Atlantic. • USA began to build (finish) the Panama Canal. • 1898-1933: USA sent its military to the following places to protect American interests: Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Columbia, Haiti, and Dominican Republic.
Revolution in Mexico: • Porfirio Diaz: ruled from 1877-1911, rule benefited the wealthy, the church, landowners, and foreign capitalists. • 95% of the population owned no land, wages declined, there was famine. • Diaz was forced from power by Francisco Madero -- Madero was ineffective and a revolution started. • Emiliano Zapata: led peasants to take land from the landowners.