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Latin America in the 21 st Century

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  1. Latin America in the 21st Century Chapter 32

  2. Latin America - Timeline

  3. First World: the United States and its allies.       Second World: the Soviet Union and its allies.      Third World: Non-aligned and neutral countries

  4. Latin America – Big Picture • Latin America – a third world continent • Idea of the 1st, 2nd, & 3rd originated during the Cold War… • 1st: Advanced economies & high development • 2nd: Industrialized communist nation • 3rd: Lack of industrialization/underdeveloped • Shared traits of Africa/Asia, but… • Western social/political structures • Economic links to US and Europe • Again focused on exports – vulnerable to world demand • Political, cultural, economic dependency cycle continued • Decolonization = economic freedom + cultural/political that matches • Becomes more industrial – leads to labor movement • Growing urban middle class begins to play a role • Latin American patterns • Economic expansion – conservative reaction to maintain political power • Economic crisis – chance to break patterns/expand social justice • More continuities than changes • Can’t replace old system w/ agreed upon new system • Better education, social services, treatment of women, industry

  5. Latin America After World War II Brazil and Argentina ruled by reformers w/ populist agenda • Even when Peron – Argentina –was expelled • power of movement still evident • Military forced to repress to maintain control • Military tried to gain prestige/nationalism in war for Falkland Islands Mexico and the PRI • Party of the Institutionalized Republic • economic growth paramount • Stability provided – controls politics – one-party system, but… • Political corruption and failure to improve social • Whatever happened to revolutionary ideals? • Zapatistas • Chiapas1994 Zapatistas revolt in Chiapas – frustrated • Problem solved through repression/negotiation • NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement) • Trade pact signed in 1992 that gradually eliminates most tariffs and other trade barriers on products and services passing between the United States, Canada, and Mexico NAFTA • Attempt to improve political situation • Trade increases, but… • Middle class gets rich and large income gap between middle class and poor • 2000 PRI finally defeated national election by Vicente Fox – PAN party • Platform – end corruption, improve life for Mexican workers in US PRI out

  6. Radical Options in the 1950s What are possible solutions to improve economic and social conditions? • Mexico – one-party conservative rule • Venezuela/Costa Rica – reform minded democracies • Or…there’s always the Marxist option • Radical solutions as possibility • Continued problems that never improve • Revolutions go too far left, bring back military into control • Bolivia – link of miners, labor, peasants • reforms • open elections • Marxist options • Bolivia • mix of radicalism and reaction

  7. Radical Options in the 1950s Guatemala: Reform and U.S. Intervention • Economic disparities– illiterate, poor health • Land distributed unequally – surprise, surprise • High mortality rate • Coffee, banana export • Labor coalition Juan José Arevalo elected, 1944 tries reforms • Income tax • Land reform • Intense nationalism • A lot of reforms, but did not drive out the Catholic church. 1951 Colonel JacoboArbenz elected tries to go even further • Tries to nationalize transportation, hydroelectric system • Tries to appropriate unused land Problem – policies conflict with desires of United Fruit Company • Foreign owned company that has a lot to lose

  8. Guatemala: Reform and U.S. Intervention • Oligarchy and United Fruit Company threatened • Now Del Monte Corporation • US/CIA sponsored military force takes over • Help based on acceptance of Eastern European weapons • Violence and instability • Guerilla movement starts • More radical land reform • Reform ends • ***Key theme – Latin American won’t be allowed to changed w/out foreigners

  9. The Cuban Revolution: Socialism in the Caribbean Cuba differs from Guatemala American influence following Spanish rule • Large Spanish and African slave descendant population • Large middle class • Relatively high literacy/health care • Huge disparity between urban and rural • Cuban policies strongly linked to US interests • ¾ imports from US • Economy fluctuates based on global demand for sugar –Major export Fulgencio Batista, 1934-1944 • military reformer, 1940, new constitution, 1952 on becomes dictator • Promises major changes – nationalization of natural resources • Marred by corruption Fidel Castro • 1953, Lawyer who launches revolution but is arrested attempted revolution • Exiled to Mexico – taught guerilla tactics by Ernesto “El Che ” Guevara • student, labor support, Both return to Cuba, gain support, take over isolated leader • 1958, Batista out • Turns Marxist-Leninist/Gains Soviet aid & protector • 1961, U.S. breaks relations with Cuba, “Bay of Pigs” • 1962, threat of nuclear war, attempted assassinations • Cuban Missile Crisis October 1963

  10. The Search for Reform and the Military Option Under Castro: • Foreign properties confiscated • Lands collectivized • Centralized socialist economy • Survived the 6os with USSR, or would have failed • Sugar prices fluctuate, can’t afford oil • El Che assassinated in Bolivia 1967 Continuity • Mexico, one-party system • Venezuela, Chile • Christian Democratic • Liberation Theology • So…how do you reverse inequality and foreign domination? • Mexico’s one party system – PRI • But…poor planning, corruption, foreign debt crippled efforts • Chile/Venezuela – church/clergy take position for human rights • Liberation theology – social equality = personal salvation • Leads to attacks against clergy/nuns who want social change

  11. Out of the Barracks: Soldiers Take Power Military intervenes in politics, 1960s • often U.S.-backed • Caudillo tradition, but… • Now military thinks they’re above politicians • Sacrifice democratic process for martial law • Fear of Cuban success spreading • Brazil • 1964 - Brazilian military + middle class take over elected government • With help from US • Fear that they would actually implement social reforms • Argentina • military coup, 1966 – Argentina - Military intervenes over Peron • Chile - General Augusto Pinochet • Former commander of Chilean army brought up on crimes against humanity • Seized power from leftist Salvador Allende in 1973 • Brutal repression – thousands killed/tortured • Uruguay, 1973 • Peru, 1968

  12. The New Democratic Trends • Unique variations • Argentina - land reform and pushed nationalism to take Falkland Islands • In Argentina, violent opposition to military rule led to a counteroffensive known as ʺthe dirty warʺ • Chile/Uruguay – intensely anti-communistic Venezuela, Costa Rica • The New Democratic Trends • 1980s military gradually turns power back to civilians • Fear of Cuba communism goes away • Populist parties not so scary • End of cold war – US hesitant to sponsor dictators

  13. The New Democratic Trends • But still huge problems for governments • Large foreign loans – some infrastructure, some stupid = huge debt • International commerce in drugs • High rates of inflation Cold war pressures eased in mid-80s • Argentina • elections, 1983 • Brazil • presidential elections, 1989 • Peru • SenderoLuminoso (Shining Path), 1990s leftist guerillas • El Salvador, Nicaragua, Guatemala • truces between governments, rebels

  14. Results… • Conditions • workers hard-hit • continuing structural problems • repression, torture • Pattern of rule • Dictatorship • Political repression/torture to dissidents • Laws limited political freedom • Economic changes • Income gap actually got worse • Property issues don’t change • Gains in literacy and health • Industrialization possible

  15. U.S. Military Interventions, 1898-2000

  16. United States and Latin America: Continuing Presence American investors • Intervention • pre-1933, 30 times • Good Neighbor Policy, 1933 • Franklin D. Rooseveltʺ that promised to deal more fairly with Latin American countries and to halt direct military intervention? • Cold War • new involvement • more indirect involvement • Alliance for Progress, 1961 • Jimmy Carter • civil liberties Ronald Reagan, George Bush • more direct intervention

  17. The United States and Latin America: Continuing Presence By end of WWI, US unquestioned leader in L. America • Leading investors – 1/3 of all US foreign investments • Military intervention to protect US owned properties/investments • 30 military interventions before 1930 • United Fruit, other companies in Central America need protection • Sometimes US contributed to assassination of leaders • Banana republics – puppet gov’ts controlled by US Conservative governments and dictatorships established in the aftermath of U.S. military intervention • Brief change in 1930s w/ Good Neighbor Policy – Roosevelt • But…communism/Cold War make it important again • Support gov’ts that express anti-communistic dogma • Belief that investment/economic improvement will prevent extremes • Alliance for Progress – up to $10 billion for helping economics • Increasing violence in 1980s, US supported conservative gov’ts • 1989-1990 – invaded Panama, installed cooperative regime • The arrest of its leader, Manuel Noriega

  18. Societies in Search of Change Slow Change in Women's Roles Voting rights not expanded until 1940s • Always concern they would lean too far conservative • Religion influenced conservatism • Women’s place in the home • Change brought about through feminist organizations, foreign pressure • Sometimes vote secured just to benefit party in power • However, right to vote doesn’t mean high political participation • Women did show some impact with labor unions • Also important w/ small scale commerce • 1990s…female participation closer to West than rest of the world • Intermediate position between industrialized and rest • Health, education, place in the workforce

  19. The Movement of People Mortality down, fertility up • The Movement of People • Population has swelled due to high fertility, declining mortality • Pre-1900, migration was to L. America • 20th century migration goes away from L. America • Job opportunities – demand for unskilled labor • US/Mexico set up formalized labor trade in WWII • Political freedom • Willing to risk death in boats to immigrate • Some migration legal, some illegal • Migration also between nations • Haiti > Dominican Republic • Colombians > Venezuela

  20. Massive Urbanization • Most urbanized area of developing world • Mexico City, Sao Paulo, Buenos Aires all 13 million + • Rate too fast • Jobs can’t keep up with pace • Creation of shantytowns – favelas • Workers unable to unite • Rural laborers not brought into factory jobs • Labor organizations linked to gov’t

  21. Population of Capital Cities

  22. Cultural Reflections of Despair and Hope Popular culture • strong blend • Jorge Luis Borges Gabriel García Marquez • Cultural Reflections of Despair and Hope • Catholicism determines family, gender relations, business, social interaction • Popular culture combination of African and Indian traditions • Sama, Salsa, Tango – L. American contributions • Literary/artistic themes revealed conditions of the poor – social criticism • Some authors resorted to “magical realism” – fantastic stories