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Latin America - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Latin America. Independence. Recap: . Spain and Portugal colonized in 1500’s English and French colonized in North America Spain colonized in Caribbean, Mexico, and South America Portugal - Brazil. Nationalism in Latin America. First revolt: 1791 – Haiti

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latin america

Latin America

Independence

recap
Recap:
  • Spain and Portugal colonized in 1500’s
  • English and French colonized in North America
  • Spain colonized in Caribbean, Mexico, and South America
  • Portugal - Brazil
nationalism in latin america
Nationalism in Latin America
  • First revolt: 1791 – Haiti
    • Toussaint-Louverture led slaves against French
      • Grandson of African King
      • Born into slavery
  • Not accepted by Napoleon
    • Tricked T-L into giving himself up
    • Taken to France
      • Died in 1803
  • Haiti free in 1803
mexican independence
Mexican Independence
  • People in Mexico watched other countries revolutions - a political movement in which people overthrow the government
    • 1770’s - American Colonies
    • 1789 - French Revolution
    • 1790’s - Haiti (France)
  • Criollos - had Spanish parents, born in Latin America
    • Few had any political power
    • Wanted to govern themselves
cry of dolores
“Cry of Dolores”
  • 1810 - Miguel Hidalgo - Criollo priest in town of Dolores. Another priest: Morelos helped
  • 80,000 followers,
    • Won some victories, but were soon retreating.
  • Was captured and killed by firing squad
  • Hidalgo started the revolution, started that way of thinking.
independence finally comes
Independence finally comes…
  • Small rebel groups kept fighting even after their leaders were executed.
  • Iturbide joins the rebels
    • High ranking criollo in Spanish Army.
  • Many people viewed Iturbide differently than Hidalgo
    • They began to suppoprt the rebellion
  • 1821 - Iturbide declared Mexico independent
south american independence
South American Independence
  • Simon Bolivar - born in Venezuela - joined the fight for independence in 1804.
  • By 1822 his troops freed much of the northern part of S.A. - Bolivar was its President.
  • Soon turned his attention south toward Peru.
s a independence
S.A. Independence
  • Jose de San Martin - Spanish Army, Argentina
  • 1817 - Took his soldiers over the Andes into Chile.
    • Defeated the Spanish within months
  • By 1821 turned his attention to Peru
    • Attacked Lima, by sea.
      • Caught Spanish off guard
s a independence1
S.A. Independence
  • One year later, San Martin met with Bolivar
    • No one knows what was talked about…
  • San martin gave up his command and left Bolivar to continue the fight on his own.
  • Bolivar drove the remaining Spanish out of S.A.
  • By 1825, only Cuba and Puerto Rico were still ruled by Spain
brazil s independence
Brazil’s Independence
  • Became independent without fighting a war.
  • In 1800s Portugal's royal family fled war in Portugal - came to Brazil
  • They returned in 1821, but the king left his son (Dom Pedro) to rule the colony.
  • He declared Brazil independent, three years later Portugal agreed to the independence
latin american challenges
Latin American Challenges
  • Many countries fought over how their countries should be governed
  • Many nations ended up poor.
  • Bolivar wanted South America to become “ONE” united country - “Gran Columbia”
    • Made up of Columbia, Venezuela, Ecuador, Panama
    • Did not accomplish, geography played big role in downfall
  • Many leaders were “caudillos”
    • Military officers who ruled strictly
    • Wanted power and to get rich, didn’t care about the people