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Chapter 4: Latin America

Chapter 4: Latin America

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Chapter 4: Latin America

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  1. Chapter 4: Latin America Rountree, et. al. as modified by Joe Naumann, UMSL

  2. Ch. 4 Latin America (fig. 4.1) Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff

  3. Learning Objectives • First chance to integrate foundation concepts with a relatively unfamiliar region, and compare regions • Understand Latin America’s culture, and how colonization has affected it • Know about the Andes and the Amazon • Understand these concepts and models: -Agrarian Reform -Dependency Theory -Dollarization -Growth poles -Altiplano -El Nino -Maquiladora -Mercosur Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff

  4. Introduction • Latin America has 17 countries • Colonized by Spain & Portugal (Iberian countries) • Large, diverse populations • 490 million people total • Indian and African presence • 75% of the people live in cities • Several megacities (more than 10 million people) • Industrialization & development grew since 1960s • Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA) proposes to integrate economies of Latin America, North America and the Caribbean (except Cuba) • Natural resource extraction remains important Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff

  5. Common Treatment of the Area • Middle America • From Mexico south through Panama • The Caribbean coastal area has much in common with the islands, culturally and economically • The islands of the Caribbean • South America • The remainder of what Rowntree refers to as Latin America. • Latin America, for many authors, encompasses both Middle America and South America Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff

  6. South American Location CONTINENTALITY • Mostly east of North America • Does not extend as far south toward the pole as North America extends north toward the pole. Has climatic implications N. AMERICA S. AMERICA NO CONTINENTALITY Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff

  7. Neotropical Diversity • Much of the region lies in the tropics, but not all • Neotropics: tropical ecosystems of the Western Hemisphere • Large species diversity, inspired Darwin • Environmental Issues Facing Latin America • Relatively large land area and low population density has minimized environmental degradation • Latin America has the opportunity to avoid mistakes that other regions have made • Brazil and Costa Rica have conservation movements • The Destruction of Tropical Rainforests • Deforestation is the most common environmental problem in Latin America Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff

  8. Rainforests may help create the humidity needed for tropical precipitation. • Major oxygen producer – can we risk losing it? Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff

  9. Environmental Geography • Destruction of Tropical Rainforests ( • Affected regions: Atlantic coastal forests of Brazil and Pacific forests of Central America • Causes: agriculture, settlement, and ranching • Grassification: conversion of tropical forest to pasture • Concerns: loss of biological diversity • Tropical rainforests: 6% of Earth’s landmass but 50% of species • Urban Environmental Challenges: Valley of Mexico • -Air pollution, smog • -Water resources: quality & quantity • -Sinking land: occurring as Mexico City draws down aquifer • -Modern urban challenges: squatter settlements • But Curitaba is a “Green City” Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff

  10. Environmental Issues inLatin America (Fig. 4.3) Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff

  11. Western Mountains & Eastern Shields • The Andes • Relatively young, 5,000 miles long; 30 peaks over 20K feet • Contain valuable metals and minerals • Altiplano: treeless, elevated plain in Peru and Bolivia • The Uplands of Mexico and Central America • Most major cities and population found here • Rich volcanic soils • The Shields • Large upland plateaus of exposed crystalline rock • Brazilian shield is the largest, covering most of Brazil • Has natural resources and settlement Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff

  12. Physical Geography of Latin America (Fig. 4.7) Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff

  13. Sierra Madre Oriental & Occidental Greater Antilles Lesser Antilles Llanos Central Plateau of Mexico Guiana Highlands Amazon Altiplano Andes Mountains Brazilian Highlands Mato Grosso Patagonia Pampa Some Key Physical Areas Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff

  14. Middle America: Hazardous • One of the most hazardous areas in the world to live. • West Coast subduction zone • Active volcanoes • Earthquake prone • Tsunamis – coastal flooding • Caribbean Hurricane Prone • Wind damage • Flooding damage Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff

  15. WORLD HURRICANE TRACKS Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff

  16. DISTRIBUTION OF EARTHQUAKES & VOLCANOES Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff

  17. Click on the sign to see the video Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff

  18. Environmental Geography • River Basins and Lowlands • Amazon Basin • Largest river system in world by volume; second in length • Draws from nine countries • Plata Basin • Region’s second largest river watershed; economically productive • Climate • Little temperature variation in many areas • Larger regional variations in precipitation • El Nino • Warm Pacific current that usually arrives along coastal Ecuador and Peru in December • Regional weather upsets (drought, torrential rain, flooding) Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff

  19. PRECIPITATION Major Influences: Southeast Trade Winds, the Andes Mountains, & the Peru Current Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff

  20. Climate Map of Latin America (Fig. 4.11) Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff

  21. Altitudinal Zonation & Climate Windward side will be wet and leeward side will be dry Leeward Windward Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff

  22. ALTITUDINAL ZONATION • Vertical Climate Zones and Agriculture Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff

  23. TIERRA FRIA (Cold Land) Corn, Wheat, Potato TIERRA TEMPLADA (Temperate Land) Coffee, Rice, Corn, Sugar TIERRA CALIENTE (Hot Land) Bananas, Cocoa, Sugar, Rice Altitudinal Zonation in Action TIERRA HELADA (Frost Land) Tierra Nevada Tierra Helada 12,000’ 3,600 m Tierra Fria 6,000’ 2,000 m Tierra Templada 2000’ 600 m Sea Level Sea Level Tierra Caliente Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff

  24. Snow at the Equator– temperature drops 3.5ºF per 1000 ft. elevation Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff

  25. Dominance of Cities • The Pattern • Interior lowlands of South America sparsely populated • Brazilia: an attempt to draw more development to the interior of Brazil – a growth pole • Higher population in Central America and Mexico interior plateaus • Dramatic population growth in 1960s and ’70s • The Latin American City • Urbanization began in 1950s; today 75% urbanized • Urban primacy: a country has a primate city 3 to 4 times larger than any other city in the country • Urban form • Reflects colonial origins and contemporary growth • Latin American City Model • Squatter settlements: makeshift housing on land not legally owned or rented by urban migrants, usually in unoccupied open spaces in or near a rapidly growing city Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff

  26. Population Map of Latin America (Fig. 4.12) Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff

  27. Periferico: circumferential, outer highway Disamenity:a zone of established slums much like the peripheral squatter settlements Latin American City Model (Fig. 4.13) In Situ Accretion:a transition zone from the inner ring of affluence to the outer ring of poverty – modest housing interspersed with unkempt areas. Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff

  28. Population and Settlement (cont.) • The Latin American City (cont.) • Rural-to-Urban Migration • Since the 1950s, peasants began to migrate to urban areas • Mechanization of agriculture, population pressure, consolidation of lands • Patterns of Rural Settlement • 130 million people (25%) live in rural areas • Rural Landholdings • Large estates used the best lands, relied on mixture of hired, tributary, and slave labor • Latifundia: Long-observed pattern of maintaining large estates • Feudal system transferred from Spain to the “New World” • Minifundia: pattern associated with peasants farming small plots for their own subsistence • Agrarian reform: a popular but controversial strategy to redistribute land to peasant farmers Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff

  29. Pop. & Settlement • Patterns of Rural Settlement (cont.) • Agricultural Frontiers • Brazilian Amazon settlement is controversial • Short-term benefits • Long-term disaster • Provided peasants with land (???), tapped unused resources, shored up political boundaries • Population Growth and Movements • Rapid growth throughout most of the century followed by slower growth • Family planning: counter-cultural & counter-religious • Declining Total Fertility Rates (TFRs) since 1980s • European Migration • Migration encouraged to till soils and “whiten” the mestizo population (of mixed European and Indian ancestry) • Many Europeans immigrated between 1870s and 1930s Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff

  30. Pop. & Settlement • Population Growth and Movements (cont.) • Asian Migration • Many Chinese and Japanese between 1870s and 1930s • Former president of Peru a Japanese descendent • New wave of immigrants from South Korea • Latino Migration and Hemispheric Change • Economic opportunities spurred migrations within Latin America, or from Mexico to the U.S. • Political turmoil, civil wars caused migration Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff

  31. Effects of Central America’s Mountains Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff

  32. PrincipalLatinAmericanMigrationFlows(Fig. 4.14) Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff

  33. Repopulating a Continent • The Decline of Native Populations • Many complex civilizations before Europeans arrived • 1500: population of 47 million; 1650: 5 million • Causes: • disease, • warfare, • forced labor, • collapse of agriculture system Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff

  34. Out of the Loop • Indian Survival • Largest populations of Indians today: Mexico, Guatemala, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia • Indians trying to secure recognized territory in their countries • Comarca: loosely defined territory similar to a province or homeland, where Indians have political and resource control Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff

  35. MA Hearths Aztecs Mayans INDIAN CULTURE HEARTHS • SOURCE AREAS from which radiated ideas, innovations, and ideologies that changed the world beyond. Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff

  36. Inca Culture Hearth Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff

  37. Machu Pichu – terraced mountain top Inca city Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff

  38. Terraces at Machu Pichu Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff

  39. Achievements: • Bridge building and mountain roads • Irrigation • Surgery through the skull • Highly organized social/economic structure • Effective management of conquered peoples Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff

  40. Cultural Patterns • Patterns of Ethnicity and Culture • Racial caste system – Spanish legacy: blanco (European), mestizo (mixed ancestry), indio (Indian), negro (African) • Colonial structure – transplanted feudalism • Peninsulares – • Creoles – • Mestizo – • European/African mix • Native Americans (Indians) & Africans • Independence equality of Peninsulares & Creoles • Blancos dominated social, political, & economic systems for more than a century Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff

  41. Patterns of Culture • Languages • About 2/3 Spanish, 1/3 Portuguese speakers • Indigenous languages in central Andes, Mexico, Guatemala • Blended Religions • 90% Roman Catholic (nominally) • El Salvador, Uruguay have sizeable Protestant populations • Syncretic religions: • Voodoo • Catholicism and African religions, with Brazil’s carnival as an example Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff

  42. Catholic Influence • Traditionally provided education & health care • Established many of the social mores • Higher clergy often came from the aristocracy and supported the status quo • Social role of the Church has grown in some places becoming an advocate for the poor and disenfranchised • Bishop Romero in Nicaragua (assassinated) • Has opposed most birth control methods in countries with high birth rates and great poverty • Many may be Catholic “in name only” Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff

  43. Machismo • Male oriented society – definitely a double standard • Traditionally, marriages were arranged – a greater disadvantage for women – upper class men were expected to be unfaithful • Admiration for the strong, forceful male • Dictators were often admired as much as they were feared • Military often a vehicle for advancement and control • Compromise seen as a sign of weakness • Male resistance to birth control -- # of male children often considered a measure of one’s manhood Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff

  44. Language Map of Latin America (Fig. 4.19) Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff

  45. Colombian Exchange • Amerindians Contributed: • Corn (maize), sweet potato, several kinds of beans, the tomato, several kinds of squash, cacao, & tobacco (Potato – from Peru) • Gonorrhea & rheumatoid arthritis • Europeans Contributed: • Wheat, oats, rye, & other European crops, horse, cow, sheep, pigs, chicken • Syphilis, small pox, chicken pox, measles, mumps, typhoid fever, influenza, etc. – African slaves also brought tropical diseases for which Amerindians had no immunity or resistance Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff

  46. European Settlement • Initially drawn to areas of Incan rule and wealth (Spanish) – “God, Glory, & Gold” • At first kept the Inca as a puppet ruler • Quickly turned to serfdom • Hacienda was the New World “Manor” • Land seen as the symbol of and source of wealth • Land Alienationtransfer of Amerindian lands to European ownership • Amerindians became the “serfs” Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff

  47. Redrawing the Map • Cycles of antagonism and cooperation • Organization of American States (OAS) • MERCOSUR (Southern Cone Common Market) • Iberian Conquest and Territorial Division • Treaty of Tordesillas divided South America between Spain and Portugal • Revolution and Independence • Creoles led revolutions, resulting in the creation of new countries • Persistent Border Conflicts • Colonial boundary lines were not well accepted • When states gained independence, border issues grew Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff

  48. Shifting Political Boundaries (Fig. 4.21) Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff

  49. Geopolitical Framework • Iberian Conquest and Territorial Division • The Trend Toward Democracy • Long independence, but political stability has been a problem • Democratic elections since 1980s • Most of the countries are free-market democracies • Regional Organizations • Supranatural organizations: governing bodies that include several states • Subnational organizations: groups that represent areas of people within the state Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff

  50. Regional Organizations • Trade Blocks • To foster internal markets and reduce trade barriers • Latin American Free Trade Association (LAFTA), Central American Common Market (CACM), Andean Group, NAFTA, Mercosur • Insurgencies and Drug Traffickers • Guerrilla groups have controlled large portions of their countries through violence and intimidation • FARC (Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia); ELN (National Liberation Army) • Colombia has highest murder rate in the world • Drug cartels: powerful and wealthy organized crime syndicates Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff