Amy Miles Advanced Chemist WI State Lab of Hygiene Phone: 608-224-6244 firstname.lastname@example.org Designer DrugsBath Salts? Plant Food? Jennifer Messick Traffic Safety Resource Prosecutor (907) 343 6434 email@example.com Thank you: Anchorage Police Department Alaska Highway Safety Office
Objective • Increase Officer Safety • Increase DUI detection and prosecution by providing comprehensive information about some of the most common Designer Drugs and how they differ from traditional drugs
What are “Designer Drugs”? “a drug produced by a minor modification in the chemical structure of an existing drug, resulting in a new substance with similar pharmacologic effects, especially one created to achieve the same effect as a controlled or illegal drug” - (dictionary.com)
Designer Drugs - Interpretation • Designer vs. Rx • DRE Information • Limited scientific references • Police reports • DRE observations • Tox report may not = impairment • Tox report may not = presence
Designer Drugscovered in this presentation: • Synthetic Cannabinoids Spice/K2 (Marijuana) 2. Cathinone Derivatives Bath Salts / Plant Food(cocaine, ecstacy, meth) 3. 2C- family (Hallucinogen) 4. Krokodil
Road MapFor Each Drug: General Identification Marketing, packaging, history Methods of ingestion Common signs/symptoms, case example Detection: NIC, blood, urine Legal Status Officer Safety
What is SPICE / K2? Dangerous, synthetic research chemicals that have been dissolved in acetone and sprayed onto dried plant material
SPICE / K2 Marketed as incense Smells nasty (watermelon, vanilla, rootbeer, tropical, etc) Smoked, mixed in drink, injected
SPICE / K2 Marketed as incense Smells nasty (watermelon, vanilla, rootbeer, tropical, etc) Smoked, mixed in drink, injected Sold LEGALLY and LOCALLY (well, kind of) 1g -3g packages $25 - $40 / g (about 2x price of pot) 1 pkg = 3-5 doses Used since about 2007
SPICE / K2 Ingredients: Baybean, Blue Lotus, Lion's Tail, Lousewort, Indian Warrior, Dwarf Scullcap, Maconha Brava, Pink Lotus, Marshmallow, Red Clover, Rose, Siberian Motherwort, Canavalia Maritime, Leonotis Leonurus, Leonurus Sibiricus, Pedicularis Densiflora, Scuttellaria Nana, Vanilla Planifolia, Zorinia Latifolia, Magnolia Officinalis, Rosa Gallica, Trifolium
JWH – The Life of the Party…. • John W. Huffman - Clemson University • First to synthesize delta-9 analogues in 1984 • 450+ different types • Sold in Germany around 2007 • "I figured once it got started in Germany it was going to spread. I'm concerned that it could hurt people," Huffman said. "I think this was something that was more or less inevitable. It bothers me that people are so stupid as to use this stuff".
Cerebral Cortex Higher cognitive function Appetite Hypothalamus Motor control Motor control, learning, action selection Nausea, vomiting Medulla Cognition, memory, perception, learning endocrine function, food intake, body temp regulation
Synthetic Marijuana • CB1 receptors • Expressed mainly in the brain, CNS, muscle, liver, lungs, kidney • CB2 receptors • Expressed in the immune system, evidence of location in the brain • CB receptors are activated by three main groups • Endocannabinoids • Plant cannabinoids • Synthetic cannabinoids
Missouri Human Dosing Study • 6 subjects (one dose 2x) over two days • 2 female, 4 male • Allowed maximum of 2 “hits” • Blood, urine and oral fluid samples • Each subject (but one) commented they would “hit” again • Five of the six subjects reported previous experience with synthetic cannabinoids
Missouri Human Dosing Study • Male, 39 yo, 5’10”, 190# • No drug history • First time user
Missouri Human Dosing Study • WAT • Lack of coordination, balance • Raised arms • Stepped off the line • OLS • Sway, used arms, put foot down, leg and body tremors • Romberg • Sway – 2inch front to back, 1inch side • Estimated 30 seconds in 37 • FTN • Quick and lethargic movements, 6 errors
Missouri Dosing Study • University of Central Missouri • Bob Welsh • Tracey Durbin • NMS Labs • Dr. Barry Logan
SymptomsNot always a bad trip, but if you’re involved it probably is Elevated BP (140-210 / 100-110) Tremors / Seizures Unconsciousness Hallucinations / Delusions / Paranoia / Anxiety Numbness / Tingling
SymptomsNot always a bad trip, but if you’re involved it probably is Vomiting Memory Loss Incoherent/slurred speech User may feel cold 6-8hr high (some effects up to 30hrs) Death?? APD#10-14949 3 raised medians, 2 concrete retaining walls, broken axle, flat tire, driving sidewalk 6HGN + VGN .000 BrAC Slurred/incoherent “Death all around” Going to kill officer
DETECTION OF SPICE/K2(NIC negative for pot) Blood(NMS) $195 Within 6-8 hours; can detect some JWH compounds Can’t detect all compounds Screen + confirmation / quantitation Impairment vs particular level of drug Urine $35 - 50 Within 3 days; can detect some JWH compounds Cannot detect all compounds (LC / Tandem MS normally used)
Spice v. POT? Blood shot / Red eyes Maybe HGN / VGN Lack of Convergence +- Normal Pupil size Normal light reaction Temperature ↓or normal Blood pressure ↑or ↓ +- Rigid muscle tone Blood shot / red eyes No HGN / VGN Lack of Convergence Dilated Pupils Normal light reaction Temperature normal Blood Pressure ↑ Normal muscle tone
Million Dollar Question: Which category??
What is Everyone Else Doing About It? ILLEGAL In most European and Scandinavian countries Still Legal in Canada 25 States in US + Military Problems with legislation and analog compounds ready to go
What is the U.S. doing about it? DEA Emergency Ban - Sch I (JWH-018,JWH-073, JWH-200 and CP47-497) - Sell or possess - Became effective when published in CFR (3/1/11) - Remains in effect for 12 months - Can be extended 6 months
PART 1308 - SCHEDULES OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES § 1308.11 Schedule I. * * * * *(g) * * * (1) 5-(1,1-Dimethylheptyl)-2-[(1R,3S)- 3-hydroxycyclohexyl]-phenol, its optical, positional, and geometric isomers, salts and salts of isomers— 7297 (Other names: CP–47,497) (2) 5-(1,1-Dimethyloctyl)-2-[(1R,3S)-3- hydroxycyclohexyl]-phenol, its optical positional, and geometric isomers, salts and salts of isomers—7298 (Other names: cannabicyclohexanol and CP- 47,497 C8 homologue) (3) 1-Butyl-3-(1-naphthoyl)indole, its optical, positional, and geometric isomers, salts and salts of isomers— 7173 (Other names: JWH–073) (4) 1-[2-(4-Morpholinyl)ethyl]-3-(1- naphthoyl)indole, its optical, positional, and geometric isomers, salts and salts of isomers—7200 (Other names: JWH–200) (5) 1-Pentyl-3-(1-naphthoyl)indole, its optical, positional, and geometric isomers, salts and salts of isomers— 7118 (Other names: JWH–018 and AM678) 11078 Federal Register / Vol. 76, No. 40 / Tuesday, March 1, 2011 / Rules and Regulations
What is the law in my State? • Traffic Safety Resource Prosecutors • Contact Jenn to find out who your TSRP is • firstname.lastname@example.org • (907) 343 6434 • National Traffic Law Center (NTLC) http://www.ndaa.org/apri/programs/traffic/ntlc_home.html#crash
Solid DUI Cases(The Defendant is your Crime Scene) Can I arrest for DUI? Impairment vs Controlled Substance Even if legal, may still be DUI Detail / describe observations Smell (or lack of) Hear – speech, statements, admissions Turn on Recorder (if permitted) Get Blood Can I prove the charge without blood? If it comes back ‘nothing detected’ is my case sunk?
Officer Safety Unregulated mixture of you name it (higher potential for overdose) Mixed / Unpredictable symptoms You are the frontline – Be Careful! Acetone is flammable!
Officer Safety Be Aware Wear Gloves If ‘incense’ burning in home, re-evaluate Call / wait for back-up Exposure Report? Call medics / poison control Poison Control 1-800-222-1222
Cathinone Derivatives What are Bath Salts?
What are Bath Salts?Cathinone Derivatives • Synthetic drugs – stimulant, similar to ecstasy, cocaine and/or meth • “Not for human consumption” • White, odorless, “pills”, fine-grained powder or crystals (oxidizes to yellow or tan)
Cathinone Derivatives • Khat
Cathinone DerivativesMechanism of Action • Cathinone • Induces release of dopamine • Similar to amphetamines • Similar in structure to bupropion, methcathinone, diethylpropion • Catecholamine release • “Fight or flight” hormones
Cathinone Derivatives Homologues Analogues VS.
MDPV • Marketed as “Bath Salts”and “plant food” • CNS stimulant (3-4 hrs) • Chemical analog of Cathinone (Sch 1 C.S.) • NOT Controlled Substance • Detectable in blood and Urine (special test) • Not to be confused with MDMA “ecstasy”
Common Packaging Plastic jars or foil packets
APD#11-1234 - Stopped at green light - Clumsy, poor dexterity - Sluggish speech, no odor alcohol - 2 HGN, 4 WAT, 4 OLS Eyes non-reactive to light * Blood positive MDPV APD#11-1234 Wrong way / one way, curb, sidewalk, yards, pedestrian, eluding, multiple LSA Delusion Marshalls after him (tow truck driver) Small jar white powder, NIC positive cocaine Syringe, pipe Normal pupils, no HGN *Blood positive MDPV Case Examples