Pre-test • A Million Dollars Activity
What do you think of when you hear the word DRUG? • Most of us think of harmful, illegal drugs, but there are many different types of drugs. Drugs are used to alter body, treat sickness, but other purposes too. • Examples: Aspirin and Painkillers- Legal • Marijuana and cocaine- illegal
Food is not a drug. Though, many foods such as cola and chocolate contain drugs- caffeine.
Ways to Take Drugs: • Drugs can be taken orally: this means it can be taken through the mouth. • This is the easiest way to take drugs. • Most drugs taken orally are pills, capsules, tablets, or liquid. When taken orally, the medicine is dissolved by the chemicals in the stomach and into the bloodstream. • Drugs can be taken by injection: • drugs by injections are shots given to us by our doctor. A shot is given when the doctor wants the drug to act quickly, or if it won’t act properly taken orally. • We inject drugs into our muscles: arms, buttocks, or upper thigh. Injection is the fastest and most powerful way for a drug to reach the brain. • Smoking: • Some drugs are smoked- tobacco, marijuana, and crack cocaine. • Nicotine in tobacco is the most common form of smoking a drug. When smoked, the drug is carried into the lungs and passed through tiny blood vessels into the bloodstream. ALL smoke contains poisonous substances. It can cause lung cancer, lung disease, emphysema, and much more. • Inhaling Drugs: • does anyone have asthma? • People who have asthma use an inhaler to breath in the drug. • Each time the inhaler is pumped, a certain amount of drug is released. • Once it is inhaled in the lungs, then it is released into the bloodstream and carried by cells to where it is needed. • Other examples of inhaling drugs: Nose sprays, anesthetics at the doctor’s office.
Demonstration: Have a variety of oral medications in front of room. (pills- swallow, capsules, tablets, liquid- drink, chewable- chew, gel tablets, medicine in a lollypop etc.) Medicines are in many forms because some people have difficulty swallowing pills or dislike the taste of a liquid. Now, look at the lollypop. Is this good or bad way to represent medicine?
Role-play: At your table come up with a response to the following scenario. “ Mario has a part-time job at a convenience store. Peter comes in and wants to buy cigarettes. Mario thinks Peter is to young to buy cigarettes, but Peter insists that he is old enough.” What should Mario do?
Inhalers are fastest way to deliver medicine when someone is wheezing. • Asthma is common condition among all age groups of people. • People with asthma usually carry an inhaler with them at all times. • NEVER borrow a friend’s inhaler, if you think you have asthma then see a doctor.
Other Ways to take Drugs: • transdermal patch- sticks to skin like a bandage, and medicine from patch is slowly released into the bloodstream from the patch. • Ointments: are applied topically to the skin and do not enter the bloodstream. • Drops: for eyes and ears, do not enter the bloodstream.
Drugs taken in more than one form: • Drugs that can be taken in more than one form have different effects on the body. • Penicillin- can be taken orally, but when injected it has a much faster effect. • Another example- nicotine- people can smoke a cigarette that contains nicotine, but people trying to quit smoking may wear a nicotine patch or chew nicotine gum .
Exit Slip- Create a concept map with the following words: drugs, oral, pills, injection, needle, inhaling, smoking, transdermal patch, ointment, ear drops, eye drops, mouth, skin, muscle, lungs, and ear. Turn in at tray.
Activity • Quiz One: Students will have 10 minutes to complete quiz one.
•Medicines •Prescription medicines •Over-the-counter medicines •Vaccine •Antibodies •Antibiotics •Side effect •Tolerance
Medicines are drugs that are used to treat or prevent diseases, pain, injury, or other conditions. • ALL medicines are drugs, but not ALL drugs are medicines.
Approve medicines based on the following steps to make sure they are safe and effective. Releasing Medicine to the Public: • The FDA determines how consumers can obtain medicines. There are two ways.
Medicines that are potentially harmful and very strong can only be sold with a written order from a physician. • On a RX hard Copy there will be the following information: • Patient’s name • Medicine’s name • Doctor’s signature • How to take the (medicine dosage) • Prescription label: • Patient’s name • Directions for taking the medicine • Name of the drug • Doctor’s name • Special Warnings • It is important to take medicine exactly as instructed. Taking too much can be harmful or taking too little can keep the medicine from working.
OTC medicines are safe enough to be taken without a written order from a physician. • There are over thousands of OTC medicines. • These medicines can cause harm though if not used as directed on the label. • It is important to read OTC labels that provide information about ingredients, name and address of manufacturer, and the control number. • Why?
OTC Label Reading: Record the name of the medicine, recommended dosage, and possible side effects. Check the ingredients and see if you are allergic to any.
Most medicines are used to: • prevent disease • fight infection • relieve pain
Medicines to Prevent Diseases: • Vaccines are used to prevent disease. • A vaccine is a preparation of dead or weakened germs that causes the immune system to produce antibodies. • Antibodies are proteins that attack and kill or disable specific germs that cause disease. • Common Vaccines: Whooping cough Measles Mumps Chicken Pox Hepatitis A and B
Many germs and diseases cannot be prevented with vaccines. • When you get sick from these germs/ diseases, antibiotics are needed to fight off certain types of bacteria. • Antibiotics are medicines that reduce or kill harmful bacteria in the body. • Penicillin is a highly effective antibiotic used.
When the body aches, it sends messages along nerves and the spinal cord to the brain. • The role of pain medicines is to block these pains or lessen their effect. • Aspirin is a commonly used pain medicine.
There are varieties of medicines used to treat people with certain conditions or health problems (heart and blood pressure problems, diabetes, allergies, etc.) • Medicine in the Body: The way medicine enters the body will have a different affect for the medicine. • Medicines have different effects on different people.
Side effects: Some medicines in addition to their intended effect cause a side effect. • A side effect is any effect of a medicine other than the one intended. Common side effects: Headache Upset stomach Drowsiness • If you ever experience side effects talk to your doctor or pharmacist. Some side effects may be serious.
When medicines are used over a long period of time, people may develop tolerance to the medicine. • Tolerance is a condition in which a person’s body becomes used to the effect of a medicine and needs greater and greater amounts of it in order for it to be effective.
When two or more medicines are taken at the same time the effects can be dangerous. • Possible effects: •Each medicine may have a stronger effect that it would have if taken alone. •The medicines may combine to produce unexpected effects. •One medicine may cancel out the expected effects of the other.
Should all drugs carry a warning label that states the possible problems of tolerance?
“This medicine must be taken five times a day and must be taken at least one hour before eating or two hours after eating.” Create a schedule of meal times and times that the medicine should be taken.
Activity • Quiz Two: Students will have 10 minutes to complete quiz two.
•Drug misuse •Drug abuse •Drug addiction •Withdrawal •Dependence •Physical dependence •Psychological dependence
Any use of a medicine that is different from its intended use is drug misuse. Examples of drug misuse: •Not taking the medicine as instructed •Not finishing the medicine •Taking someone’s else prescription •Increasing the dose without your doctor’s permission • Misuse can lead to overdose, drug abuse or addiction.
In groups, perform a skit about a teen that starts using medicine properly and then begins to misuse it.
Drug abuse is misusing a legal drug on purpose or using any illegal drug. • Misuse often occurs when people take too much of a drug. • When the person becomes used to the higher dosage, they crave more, leading to abuse. Why do people abuse drugs? •Feel better •Perform better
Drug addiction is the uncontrollable use of a drug. • Someone addicted to a drug will continue to take it even if it is harming their health and relationships with others. • If someone is addicted, they cannot control their use of a drug because they have become dependent on it.
Dependence of a drug means needing it to function properly. • If someone stops taking a drug they are dependent on, the person will have withdrawals. • Withdrawals are negative symptoms that result when a drug-dependent person stops taking a drug. • When a person abuses a drug long enough their body gets used to the drug, and form a dependence for it. • There are two types of dependence: physical and psychological.
Is the body’s chemical need for a drug. If a person with physical dependence suddenly stops taking a drug, they will experience withdrawals. Withdrawals include: •Vomiting •Muscle and joint pain •Fever •Chills •Anxiety •And other symptoms
A person’s emotional or mental need for a drug. This person craves the drug and feels they can’t get along without the drug. This can sometimes be harder to overcome than physical dependence. Psychological dependence includes: Sleepiness Nervousness Irritability Depression
A character that has become addicted to drugs. TV show characters usually recover from addiction much more rapidly and easily than a real person would.
Drugs can cause changes in a person’s behavior. People using drugs are: •more angry •have serious mood swing •can be difficult to talk too •have violent outbursts •become physically and verbally abusive •lose interest in activities •care less about friends they shared these activities with
Most who abuse drugs do not care about their future and lose interest in their education. • Learning becomes difficult because they cannot concentrate, or forget what happened in class day to day. • Teens doing drugs stop doing homework and their grades begin to drop. • They often skip school and school functions. • Teens using drugs may disrupt others from learning by misbehaving in class or getting in trouble with school authorities. • Many teens addicted to drugs, drop out of school.
Drugs cost money • Abusing drugs is expensive. • When drug addiction gets worse and the more drugs a person needs the more money they need as well. • People who abuse drugs and need to fix their addiction will do anything for money: lie, cheat, harm others, borrow, steal, from family, friends, and even strangers.
Drug abuse and addiction can be harmful to the body. It can cause: •Sores on the mouth •Sores on the skin •Damage to kidneys •Damage to heart •Damage to brain •Effect memory loss •Sharing of needles can lead to HIV/AIDS •Mental and emotional problems •Depression •Fear •Nervousness •Suicide
Some drugs are illegal. • Drug abuse or addiction can lead to problems with the law. • Getting arrested or going to court can affect a person’s entire life. • It may be harder to find a job, you may get a jail sentence, lose freedom and dreams with time spent in jail, may lead to other crimes (stealing or DUI).
Draw stick person on the board and write family, school, friends, money, health, and police around it. Have the students copy it down and write DRUGS at the top. At the bottom have them tell how drug addiction affects the relationships between the person in the middle and each of the things surrounding it.