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DRUGS

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  1. DRUGS By Chris Embling Walnut Educational Initiatives 2003

  2. Walnut Educational Initiatives 2003

  3. Drugs • A drug is a chemical substance that affects the body systems • Sports people have been tempted to use them to help them perform better • This process is known as doping • Doping is a big problem in sport Walnut Educational Initiatives 2003

  4. You will need to know: • The different kinds of drugs that can be taken • What they do • and why they are banned in international competition • Alcohol and tobacco may be harmful but they are legal - although they are still drugs and can affect performance badly Walnut Educational Initiatives 2003

  5. Alcohol • Can affect co-ordination, speech, judgement • Slows reaction times • Makes muscle get tired more quickly • Eventually damages liver, kidneys, heart, muscles, brain, digestive and immune systems Walnut Educational Initiatives 2003

  6. Smoking • Causes nose, throat and chest infections • Makes you short of breath • Increase risk of developing heart disease, lung cancer and bronchitis. • Small amounts of alcohol don’t do much harm but every cigarette does damage! Walnut Educational Initiatives 2003

  7. Definitions Ergogenic Aid any substance which enhances sports performance Doping the use by/distribution to an athlete of any substance which could artificially improve the athletes physical and/or mental condition which would result in improved sporting performance Walnut Educational Initiatives 2003

  8. Performance Enhancing Drugs • Remember SNAPD • Stimulants • Narcotic analgesics • Anabolic Agents • Peptide hormones • Diuretics Walnut Educational Initiatives 2003

  9. Stimulants - Amphetamines are stimulants both mental and physical Walnut Educational Initiatives 2003

  10. Narcotic Analgesics -Painkillers Walnut Educational Initiatives 2003

  11. Anabolic Steroidsthese are derivatives of the male hormone testosterone Examples: Stanozolol, Testosterone, Nandrolone Walnut Educational Initiatives 2003

  12. Peptide Hormones and Analogues Peptide hormones carry messages around the body to increase growth, influence behaviour and control pain. They are man made drugs Walnut Educational Initiatives 2003

  13. Diureticsthese help remove fluid from the body Walnut Educational Initiatives 2003

  14. B CALM Drugs • Beta Blockers • Courticosteroids • Alcohol • Local anesthetics • Marijuana • The IOC restricts the use of these drugs Walnut Educational Initiatives 2003

  15. Beta Blockers These are used to treat heart disease Walnut Educational Initiatives 2003

  16. Corticosteroids Walnut Educational Initiatives 2003

  17. Alcohol • Sometimes used to calm nerves in shooting or snooker Walnut Educational Initiatives 2003

  18. Local Anesthetics • Reduce pain but might be allowed for medical purposes Walnut Educational Initiatives 2003

  19. Marijuana • Has a similar effect to alcohol Walnut Educational Initiatives 2003

  20. Blood doping is bannedthe removal of blood and replacement with blood enriched with added blood cells Walnut Educational Initiatives 2003

  21. Dope testing can happen at any time Walnut Educational Initiatives 2003

  22. 15 Years of Drug Controversies • 1989 Dublin inquiry opens in Toronto – research shows that more than 50 competitors in 1988 Olympics used anabolic steroids • Tom Hawk dies in a strongman competition in Scotland – thought to be caused by anabolic steroids • 1990 at Commonwealth games Welsh weightlifters are sent home after positive tests • 1991 Former East German swimming coaches admit to giving anabolic steroids to competitors • Christopher Snarski a bodybuilder is jailed for 12 years for the manslaughter of his two children he claimed his actions were the result of his psychological dependency on anabolic steroids • 1992 Butch Reynolds the world 400 metres record holder is found positive for a hormone drug – he took his case to Supreme Court but lost • Andrew Davies , Andrew Saxton and Jason Livingstone are sent home from Barcelona Games for testing positive Walnut Educational Initiatives 2003

  23. The 1991 World 100 and 200 mm champion Krabbe admits taking clenbuterol she is eventually suspended for unsportsmanlike conduct • The Wives of Anabolic Steroids Users Association publishes findings reporting stories of physical and psychological abuse by spouses • 1993 Jon Pall Sigmarsson dies – a former winner of the World’s Strongest Man competition his death is blames on drug taking • Ben Jonson suspended for a second time for adverse testosterone/epitestosterone ratio • Research claims more than 50,000 Britons take hormone drugs • 1994 Diago Maradona banned from World Cup finals in US for taking cocktail of drugs Walnut Educational Initiatives 2003

  24. 1994 Paul Edwards and Diane Modahl sent home from Commonwealth Games in drugs controversies. Modahl was later exonerated • Paul Merson admits to being addicted to cocaine • Seven China swimmers are found positive for anabolic steroids when they arrive for Asian games • 1995 Zoe Warwick a former European bodybuilding champion kills herself as she could not cope with the effects of steroid abuse • 1996 Mark Tout, Britain’s bobsleigh driver banned for testing positive • 1998 China swimming team competitors sent home for suspected drug taking Walnut Educational Initiatives 2003

  25. Michelle Smith, Irish swimming champion found guilty of tampering with urine sample • Ronnie O’Sullivan tests positive for cannabis • Controversies surrounds Tour de France when drugs are found in support cars • Florence Grifith Joyner the world 100m holder dies at 39 thought to be from drug related side effects • 1999 British sprinters Linford Christie and Dougie Walker test positive for nandrolone • 2001 Footballers including Edgar Davids, Fernando Cuoto, Frank de Boer and Jaap Stam test positive for nandrolone Walnut Educational Initiatives 2003

  26. 2002 Alan Baxter loses Olympic bronze medal for skiing after using a Vicks inhaler containing methamphetamine • 2003 Steve Bechler, Baltimore pitcher dies he has been taking ephedra a substance banned by IOS but permitted in professional baseball • Kelli white, American 100 and 200 World Champion found positive for modafinil a mild stimulant. • Rio Ferdinand cause controversy when he fails to turn up for a routine drugs test Walnut Educational Initiatives 2003

  27. Walnut Educational Initiatives 2003

  28. Solutions to drug takingShould drugs to legitimised? Walnut Educational Initiatives 2003

  29. Solutions to drug takingMore testing • Tests need to be carried out randomly and more often • This requires cooperation at international level • It is very expensive to administer • It should also be done out of season • Testing procedures need to be improved/made more efficient Walnut Educational Initiatives 2003

  30. Solutions to drug takingPunishment • The imposition of life bans has been difficult to implement - Ben Johnson • Banning has to be internationally agreed • Punishment of coaches and suppliers as well as athletes Walnut Educational Initiatives 2003

  31. Solutions to drug takingEducation • Athletes should be taught about drugs starting at school • There is also need for public education on drugs Walnut Educational Initiatives 2003

  32. Solutions to drug takingBetter role models • Use of positive role models i.e. athletes who succeed without the use of drugs • Use of negative role models i.e. naming and shaming of athletes found guilty of drug use Walnut Educational Initiatives 2003

  33. Drugs are not the only issue which can cause unfairness in sport - other factors can have an effect • Environment/weather/climate • hot or humid weather can effect performance as can wind or freezing cold • Mental Ability - the ability to make good decisions • Experience - vital in competitions • Mental preparation • relaxation techniques help reduce anxiety • Mental rehearsal will help preparation Walnut Educational Initiatives 2003

  34. Other factors - continued • Senses - sharp eyesight and a delicate sense of touch can help • Equipment - the better the equipment the better the performance • Technology - computer and video technology can help in training • Physical ability • Altitude - altitude training can help in endurance events Walnut Educational Initiatives 2003