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DRUGS By Chris Embling Drugs A drug is a chemical substance that affects the body systems Sports people have been tempted to use them to help them perform better This process is known as doping Doping is a big problem in sport You will need to know:

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DRUGS

By

Chris Embling

Walnut Educational Initiatives 2003



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Drugs

  • A drug is a chemical substance that affects the body systems

  • Sports people have been tempted to use them to help them perform better

  • This process is known as doping

  • Doping is a big problem in sport

Walnut Educational Initiatives 2003


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You will need to know:

  • The different kinds of drugs that can be taken

  • What they do

  • and why they are banned in international competition

  • Alcohol and tobacco may be harmful but they are legal - although they are still drugs and can affect performance badly

Walnut Educational Initiatives 2003


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Alcohol

  • Can affect co-ordination, speech, judgement

  • Slows reaction times

  • Makes muscle get tired more quickly

  • Eventually damages liver, kidneys, heart, muscles, brain, digestive

    and immune systems

Walnut Educational Initiatives 2003


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Smoking

  • Causes nose, throat and chest infections

  • Makes you short of breath

  • Increase risk of developing heart disease, lung cancer and bronchitis.

  • Small amounts of alcohol don’t do much

    harm but every cigarette does

    damage!

Walnut Educational Initiatives 2003


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Definitions

Ergogenic Aid

any substance which enhances sports performance

Doping

the use by/distribution to an athlete of any substance

which could artificially improve the athletes physical

and/or mental condition which would result in

improved sporting performance

Walnut Educational Initiatives 2003


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Performance Enhancing Drugs

  • Remember SNAPD

    • Stimulants

    • Narcotic analgesics

    • Anabolic Agents

    • Peptide hormones

    • Diuretics

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Stimulants - Amphetamines are stimulants both mental and physical

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Narcotic Analgesics -Painkillers

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Anabolic Steroidsthese are derivatives of the male hormone testosterone

Examples: Stanozolol, Testosterone, Nandrolone

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Peptide Hormones and Analogues

Peptide hormones carry messages around the body to increase growth, influence behaviour and control pain. They are man made drugs

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Diureticsthese help remove fluid from the body

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B CALM Drugs

  • Beta Blockers

  • Courticosteroids

  • Alcohol

  • Local anesthetics

  • Marijuana

  • The IOC restricts the use of these drugs

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Beta Blockers These are used to treat heart disease

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Corticosteroids

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Alcohol

  • Sometimes used to calm nerves in shooting or snooker

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Local Anesthetics

  • Reduce pain but might be allowed for medical purposes

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Marijuana

  • Has a similar effect to alcohol

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Blood doping is bannedthe removal of blood and replacement with blood enriched with added blood cells

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Dope testing can happen at any time

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15 Years of Drug Controversies

  • 1989 Dublin inquiry opens in Toronto – research shows that more than 50 competitors in 1988 Olympics used anabolic steroids

  • Tom Hawk dies in a strongman competition in Scotland – thought to be caused by anabolic steroids

  • 1990 at Commonwealth games Welsh weightlifters are sent home after positive tests

  • 1991 Former East German swimming coaches admit to giving anabolic steroids to competitors

  • Christopher Snarski a bodybuilder is jailed for 12 years for the manslaughter of his two children he claimed his actions were the result of his psychological dependency on anabolic steroids

  • 1992 Butch Reynolds the world 400 metres record holder is found positive for a hormone drug – he took his case to Supreme Court but lost

  • Andrew Davies , Andrew Saxton and Jason Livingstone are sent home from Barcelona Games for testing positive

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  • The 1991 World 100 and 200 mm champion Krabbe admits taking clenbuterol she is eventually suspended for unsportsmanlike conduct

  • The Wives of Anabolic Steroids Users Association publishes findings reporting stories of physical and psychological abuse by spouses

  • 1993 Jon Pall Sigmarsson dies – a former winner of the World’s Strongest Man competition his death is blames on drug taking

  • Ben Jonson suspended for a second time for adverse testosterone/epitestosterone ratio

  • Research claims more than 50,000 Britons take hormone drugs

  • 1994 Diago Maradona banned from World Cup finals in US for taking cocktail of drugs

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  • 1994 Paul Edwards and Diane Modahl sent home from Commonwealth Games in drugs controversies. Modahl was later exonerated

  • Paul Merson admits to being addicted to cocaine

  • Seven China swimmers are found positive for anabolic steroids when they arrive for Asian games

  • 1995 Zoe Warwick a former European bodybuilding champion kills herself as she could not cope with the effects of steroid abuse

  • 1996 Mark Tout, Britain’s bobsleigh driver banned for testing positive

  • 1998 China swimming team competitors sent home for suspected drug taking

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  • Michelle Smith, Irish swimming champion found guilty of tampering with urine sample

  • Ronnie O’Sullivan tests positive for cannabis

  • Controversies surrounds Tour de France when drugs are found in support cars

  • Florence Grifith Joyner the world 100m holder dies at 39 thought to be from drug related side effects

  • 1999 British sprinters Linford Christie and Dougie Walker test positive for nandrolone

  • 2001 Footballers including Edgar Davids, Fernando Cuoto, Frank de Boer and Jaap Stam test positive for nandrolone

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  • 2002 Alan Baxter loses Olympic bronze medal for skiing after using a Vicks inhaler containing methamphetamine

  • 2003 Steve Bechler, Baltimore pitcher dies he has been taking ephedra a substance banned by IOS but permitted in professional baseball

  • Kelli white, American 100 and 200 World Champion found positive for modafinil a mild stimulant.

  • Rio Ferdinand cause controversy when he fails to turn up for a routine drugs test

Walnut Educational Initiatives 2003


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Walnut Educational Initiatives 2003 using a Vicks inhaler containing methamphetamine


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Solutions to drug taking using a Vicks inhaler containing methamphetamineShould drugs to legitimised?

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Solutions to drug taking using a Vicks inhaler containing methamphetamineMore testing

  • Tests need to be carried out randomly and more often

  • This requires cooperation at international level

  • It is very expensive to administer

  • It should also be done out of season

  • Testing procedures need to be improved/made more efficient

Walnut Educational Initiatives 2003


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Solutions to drug taking using a Vicks inhaler containing methamphetaminePunishment

  • The imposition of life bans has been difficult to implement - Ben Johnson

  • Banning has to be internationally agreed

  • Punishment of coaches and suppliers as well as athletes

Walnut Educational Initiatives 2003


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Solutions to drug taking using a Vicks inhaler containing methamphetamineEducation

  • Athletes should be taught about drugs starting at school

  • There is also need for public education on drugs

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Solutions to drug taking using a Vicks inhaler containing methamphetamineBetter role models

  • Use of positive role models i.e. athletes who succeed without the use of drugs

  • Use of negative role models i.e. naming and shaming of athletes found guilty of drug use

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Drugs are not the only issue which can cause unfairness in sport - other factors can have an effect

  • Environment/weather/climate

    • hot or humid weather can effect

      performance as can wind or freezing cold

  • Mental Ability - the ability to make good decisions

  • Experience - vital in competitions

  • Mental preparation

    • relaxation techniques help reduce anxiety

    • Mental rehearsal will help preparation

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Other factors - continued sport - other factors can have an effect

  • Senses - sharp eyesight and a delicate sense of touch can help

  • Equipment - the better the equipment the better the performance

  • Technology - computer and video technology can help in training

  • Physical ability

  • Altitude - altitude training can help in endurance events

Walnut Educational Initiatives 2003