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Parts of the plant and their functions. Importance of plants. Without plants life on earth would not exist. Plants:. Primary source of food for people and animals Produce oxygen help to keep us cool renew the air. Plants:. slow wind speed provide a home for wildlife

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importance of plants
Importance of plants
  • Without plants life on earth would not exist
plants
Plants:
  • Primary source of food for people and animals
  • Produce oxygen
  • help to keep us cool
  • renew the air
plants4
Plants:
  • slow wind speed
  • provide a home for wildlife
  • beautify surroundings
  • perfume the air
  • furnish building materials and fuel
parts of a plant
Parts of a plant
  • Four basic parts
    • leaves
    • stems
    • roots
    • flowers
leaves
Leaves
  • the food factory of the plant
  • produce the food used by the plant or stored for later use
shape and size of leaves
Shape and size of leaves
  • vary among plants
  • used for identification of plants
leaf arrangement
Leaf arrangement
  • alternate
  • opposite
  • whorled
    • arranged in a circle around the stem
external leaf structure
External leaf structure
  • petiole - leaf stalk
  • leaf blade (leaf)
    • has veins
    • forms structural framework of the leaf
midrib
Midrib
  • large center vein from which all other leaf veins extend
margins
Margins
  • edges of leaves
  • assists in plant identification
internal leaf structure
Internal leaf structure
  • epidermis
    • skin of the leaf
    • single layer of cells
    • protects leaf from loss of too much moisture
guard cells
Guard Cells
  • open and close the small pore on the underside of the leaf
stomates
Stomates
  • allow the plant to breathe and transpire
    • give off moisture
chloroplasts
Chloroplasts
  • contain chlorophyll
  • located inside the food making cells
photosynthesis
Photosynthesis
  • process by which CO2 and H2O in the presence of light are converted to sugar and oxygen
chemical formula
Chemical formula
  • 6CO2 + 6H2O
  • -----> in reaction with sunlight and chlorophyll ------>
  • C6H12O6 (glucose) + 6O2
slide18
food
  • manufactured in the leaves moves downward through the stem to the roots
    • used by the plant
    • stored in stem or root and leaf in the form of sugar, starch or protein.
respiration
Respiration
  • plants respire 24 hours a day
  • consume O2 and give off CO2
  • plants produce more O2 through ps. Than they consume during respiration and growth.
stems
Stems
  • have two main functions
    • movement of water and minerals from the roots upward and movement of manufactured food down
stem functions
Stem functions
  • support of leaves and reproductive structures
stems also
Stems also
  • used for food storage and reproduction of plants involving cuttings
  • Green stems manufacture food just as leaves do
external stem structure
External Stem Structure
  • lenticels- breathing pores
  • bud scale scars-indicate where terminal bud has been located previous year.
leaf scars
Leaf Scars
  • shows where leaf was attached
  • Distance between the two represents one year of growth.
internal stem structure
Internal Stem Structure
  • phloem- bark, carries manufactured foods down.
  • Xylem- wood, carries water and minerals up.
  • Cambium- separates the 2 and produces all new cells.
  • Characteristic of dicots
internal stem structure26
Internal Stem Structure
  • dicot- dicotyledon, a plant with 2 seed leaves
monocot
Monocot
  • Monocotyledon - a plant with one seed leaf.
  • Have vascular bundles, contain both xylem and phloem in each small bundle
monocot28
Monocot
  • stems have no cambium
  • cells enlarge to create size of mature stem
economic importance
Economic Importance
  • food
  • building materials
roots
Roots
  • Usually underground
  • functions:
    • anchor plant and hold upright
    • absorb water and minerals form soil and conduct to stem
    • store food, & propagation
root structure
Root Structure
  • internal
    • similar to stems
    • older roots have xylem, phloem and cambian
external
external
  • root cap
    • produces continuous supply of new cells
    • protects roots as they push through soil
structure
Structure
  • root hairs
    • absorb moisture and minerals
  • small roots
functions other than water and mineral absorption
Functions other than water and mineral absorption
  • cash crops for food
    • carrots
    • beets
    • radishes
    • sweet potatoes
  • propagation
type of root systems
Type of root systems
  • fibrous-grasses
    • easier transplanting
    • shorter, smaller, more compact
  • lap root-carrot
    • longer and fewer roots
flowers fruits and seeds
Flowers, Fruits, and Seeds
  • pollination- color of flower attracts insects to fertilize flower
    • beginning of fruit and seed formation
  • fruits and seed are attractive to birds who eat and spread seeds.
    • Reproduces plant
    • some seeds carried on animals coats
parts of the flower
Parts of the Flower
  • differ in size, shape, and color, some basic parts
  • sepal
    • green leaf-like part, covers and protects bud before opening
petals
Petals
  • are actually leaves
  • usually bright colors to attract pollinating insects.
parts of the flower39
Parts of the Flower
  • stamens
    • male part of flower
    • has two parts
      • filament-stalk
anther
Anther
  • anther- sac-like structure on top of filament, contains pollen
parts of the flower41
Parts of the Flower
  • Pistil - female part
  • in the center of flower
  • has three parts
pistil
Pistil
  • three parts
  • stigma - top - sticky
  • style - tube leading from stigma to ovary
ovary
Ovary
  • egg cells develop here
  • grows to become fruit or seedcoat
types of flowers
Types of Flowers
  • complete
    • contains 4 main parts
incomplete
Incomplete
  • does not have all 4 main parts
perfect
Perfect
  • has stamens and pistils
imperfect
Imperfect
  • lacks stamens or pistils
types of flowers48
Types of Flowers
  • monoecious
    • stamens and pistils are found in separate flowers on the same plant
      • ex: Corn
dioecious
dioecious
  • male or staminate flowers found on one plant, female or pistilate flowers on another plant
  • ex: holly