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History of Plant Taxonomy. Preliterate People arranged plants by usefulness food, poisonous, medicinal (artificial) . History of Plant Taxonomy. Preliterate People arranged plants by usefulness food, poisonous, medicinal (artificial). History of Plant Taxonomy.

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history of plant taxonomy
History of Plant Taxonomy
  • Preliterate People
    • arranged plants by usefulness
      • food, poisonous, medicinal (artificial)
history of plant taxonomy2
History of Plant Taxonomy
  • Preliterate People
    • arranged plants by usefulness
      • food, poisonous, medicinal (artificial)
history of plant taxonomy3
History of Plant Taxonomy
  • Baked Clay -> Papyrus (Egyptians) -> Printing Press
history of plant taxonomy4
History of Plant Taxonomy
  • Theophrastus - 4thC BC Greek
    • Plants:
      • Woody
        • trees, shrubs, undershrubs
      • Herbaceous
    • Detailed descriptions of many plant features:
    • sepals, petals, stamen, pistils (superior, inferior)
    • Alexander The Great
history of plant taxonomy5
History of Plant Taxonomy
  • Dioscordes Roman 1stC AD
    • Materia Medica
    • (Not much in terms of major improvements in botany through Middle Ages - until 13thC.)
history of plant taxonomy6
History of Plant Taxonomy
  • Dioscordes Roman 1stC AD
    • Materia Medica
    • (Not much in terms of major improvements in botany through Middle Ages - until 13thC.)
    • Ancient manuscripts copies in Monasteries during the Middle Ages.
      • Errors….no spirit of investigation
history of plant taxonomy7
History of Plant Taxonomy
  • Albert Magmus 13thC
    • University of Paris
    • Many Topics including Botany
    • De Vegetabilis 1256 AD
      • modified Theophrasian system
      • greater no. of plants
      • Dicots vs. monocots
      • vascular vs. nonvascular plants
history of plant taxonimy
History of Plant Taxonimy
  • Movable print (15 thC) made easy the spread of ancient works and new works.
history of plant taxonimy9
History of Plant Taxonimy
  • Movable print (15 thC) made easy the spread of ancient works and new works.
  • 15thC - 18thC Age of Herbals
    • artifical systems “Doctrine of Signatures”
    • natural systems evolved slowly
history of plant taxonimy10
History of Plant Taxonimy
  • Movable print (15 thC) made easy the spread of ancient works and new works.
  • 15thC - 18thC Age of Herbals
    • artifical systems “Doctrine of Signatures”
    • natural systems evolved slowly
    • Tremendous increase in no. of plants discovered…. 15thC L. GhiniHerbarium
history of plant systematics
History of Plant Systematics
  • Index Herbariorum Vol. 106, 1981
    • 1700 of world’s Herbaria
history of plant systematics12
History of Plant Systematics
  • Index Herbarium Vol. 106, 1981
    • 1700 of world’s Herbaria
  • Andrea Caesalpino 16thC Italian
    • Classification system based on morphological similarities De Plantis Libri (artificial)
history of plant systematics13
History of Plant Systematics
    • Index Herbariorum Vol. 106, 1981
    • 1700 of world’s Herbaria
  • Andrea Caesalpino 16thC Italian
    • Classification system based on morphological similarities De Plantis Libri (artificial)
  • Casper Baughin 17thC German
    • described over 6000 plants
    • 1st to use binomial nomenclature
history of plant systematics14
History of Plant Systematics
  • John Ray 17thC English
    • Set out to describe all organisms.
    • Herbs, Arbores
    • Monocots, Dicots
    • Used Polynomials
    • 1800 species (500 new)
    • “Type Specimen”
    • Immutability of Species
history of plant taxonomy15
Carolus Linneaus 18thC Swedish

binomial nomenclature

Species Plantarum 1753

Artificial (stamen no.)

Defined some natural groups in later works:

Compositae

Gramineae

Solanaceae

History of Plant Taxonomy
history of plant taxonomy17
History of Plant Taxonomy
  • Bentham and Hooker
    • Genera Plantarum 1863
      • Most complete pre-evolutionary work -
      • natural classification.
history of plant taxonomy18
History of Plant Taxonomy
  • Bentham and Hooker
    • Genera Plantarum 1863
      • Most complete pre-evolutionary work -
      • natural classification.
history of plant taxonomy19
History of Plant Taxonomy
  • Charles Darwin and Alfred Wallace
  • - Paper to the Linnaean Society 1858
history of plant taxonomy20
History of Plant Taxonomy
  • Charles Darwin and Alfred Wallace
  • - Paper to the Linnaean Society 1858
  • Origin of Species 1859 C. Darwin
history of plant taxonomy21
History of Plant Taxonomy
  • Charles Darwin and Alfred Wallace
  • - Paper to the Linnaean Society 1858
  • Origin of Species 1859 C. Darwin
    • Species are dynamic and variable population systems that change through time.
history of plant taxonomy22
History of Plant Taxonomy
  • Adolf Engler and Karl Prantl late 19thC German
  • The Natural Plant Families
    • most modern plant families described
    • proposed unisexual flowers primitive
    • arranged plants primitive ---> advanced
    • (simple = primitive)
history of plant systematics23
Charles Bessey 20thC American

1915 - natural phyletic system for flowering plants based on evolution.

Accepted Ranalian Line as most primitive (Ranucluaceae, magnoliaceae - Ranales).

Based on dicta used to separate primitive from advanced.

History of Plant Systematics
history of plant taxonomy24
History of Plant Taxonomy
  • Modified Bessian Classification Schemes:
    • Auther Cronquist 1968 NY Bot. Gardens
    • Armen Takhtajan 1969 Soviete Union
    • Robert Thorne 1976 Rancho Santa Anna Bot. Gardens, California
history of plant taxonomy25
History of Plant Taxonomy
  • A. Takhtajan and Auther Cronquist
kingdom plantae
Kingdom: Plantae
  • Division: Bryophyta
  • Division: Sphenophyta
  • Division: Pterophyta
  • Division: Coniferophyta
  • Division: Anthophyta
kingdom plantae27
Kingdom: Plantae
  • Division: Bryophyta “mosses and liverworts”
  • Division: Sphenophyta “horsetails”
  • Division: Pterophyta “ferns”
  • Division: Coniferophyta “spruces, firs, pines”
  • Division: Anthophyta “flowering plants”
literature of plant taxonomy
Literature of Plant Taxonomy
  • Records - Library and Herbarium
  • Publications:
    • Monograph -
literature of plant taxonomy29
Literature of Plant Taxonomy
  • Records - Library and Herbarium
  • Publications:
    • Monograph - covers a specific group of plants: family, genera, etc. (Revisions, Synopses)
    • Flora -
literature of plant taxonomy30
Literature of Plant Taxonomy
  • Records - Library and Herbarium
  • Publications:
    • Monograph - covers a specific group of plants: family, genera, etc. (Revisions, Synopses)
    • Flora - Treatment of plants in a defined geographical area. (Local Flora)
    • Research Reports -decription of new species or reclassifications. Taxon
      • journals, indices
taxonomic types
Taxonomic “Types”
  • Type Specimen -
    • one representative of the taxon
  • Holotype -
    • specimen designated by the author in the original publication (nomenclatural type)
  • Isotype -
    • a duplicate specimen of the holotype collected at the same time and place (may be in other herbarium)
  • Lectotype -
    • a specimen chosen from the author’s original material when no holotype has been designated.
taxonomic types32
Taxonomic “Types”
  • Neotype-
    • selected when all original specimens have been destroyed