Values • Definition: Mode of conduct or end state is personally or socially preferable (i.e., what is right and good) • Terminal Values • Desirable end states • Instrumental Values • The ways/means for achieving one’s terminal values • Value System: A hierarchy based on a ranking of an individual’s values in terms of their intensity Note: Values vary by cohort
Importance of Values • Provide understanding of the attitudes, motivation, and behaviors of individuals and cultures • Influence our perception of the world around us • Represent interpretations of “right” and “wrong” • Imply that some behaviors or outcomes are preferred over others
Types of Values—Rokeach Value Survey Terminal Values Desirable end-states of existence; the goals that a person would like to achieve during his or her lifetime Instrumental Values Preferable modes of behavior or means of achieving one’s terminal values
Values in the RokeachSurvey E X H I B I T 4-3
Values in the Rokeach Survey(cont’d) E X H I B I T 4-3 (cont’d)
Mean Value Rankings of Executives, Union Members, and Activists E X H I B I T 4-4
Values, Loyalty, and Ethical Behavior Ethical Climate inthe Organization Ethical Values and Behaviors of Leaders
Values Across Cultures: Hofstede’s Framework • Power Distance • Individualism vs. Collectivism • Masculinity vs. Femininity • Uncertainty Avoidance • Long-term and Short-term Orientation
Hofstede’s Framework for Assessing Cultures Power Distance The extent to which a society accepts that power in institutions and organizations is distributed unequally. Low distance: Relatively equal power between those with status/wealth and those without status/wealth High distance: Extremely unequal power distribution between those with status/wealth and those without status/wealth
Hofstede’s Framework (cont’d) Individualism The degree to which people prefer to act as individuals rather than a member of groups Collectivism A tight social framework in which people expect others in groups of which they are a part to look after them and protect them vs.
Hofstede’s Framework (cont’d) Masculinity The extent to which the society values work roles of achievement, power, and control, and where assertiveness and mater-ialism are also valued vs. Femininity The extent to which there is little differ-entiation between roles for men and women
Hofstede’s Framework (cont’d) Uncertainty Avoidance The extent to which a society feels threatened by uncertain and ambiguous situations and tries to avoid them • High Uncertainty Avoidance: Society does not like ambiguous situations and tries to avoid them. • Low Uncertainty Avoidance: Society does not mind ambiguous situations and embraces them.
Hofstede’s Framework (cont’d) Long-term Orientation A national culture attribute that emphasizes the future, thrift, and persistence vs. Short-term Orientation A national culture attribute that emphasizes the present and the here and now
Attitudes Cognitive Component The opinion or belief segment of an attitude Attitudes Evaluative statements or judgments concerning objects, people, or events Affective Component The emotional or feeling segment of an attitude Behavioral Component An intention to behave in a certain way toward someone or something
The Theory of Cognitive Dissonance Cognitive Dissonance Any incompatibility between two or more attitudes or between behavior and attitudes Individuals seek to reduce this gap, or “dissonance” • Desire to reduce dissonance depends on: • Importance of elements creating dissonance • Degree of individual influence over elements • Rewards involved in dissonance
Measuring the A-B Relationship Recent research indicates that attitudes (A) significantly predict behaviors (B) when moderating variables are taken into account. A B • Moderating Variables • Importance of the attitude • Specificity of the attitude • Accessibility of the attitude • Social pressures on the individual • Direct experience with the attitude
Self-Perception Theory Attitudes are used after the fact to make sense out of an action that has already occurred. B A ! And,
Types of Attitudes Job Satisfaction A collection of positive and/or negative feelings that an individual holds toward his or her job Job Involvement Identifying with the job, actively participating in it, and considering performance important to self-worth Organizational Commitment Identifying with a particular organization and its goals, and wishing to maintain membership in the organization (Affective, Normative, and Continuance Commitment)
Types of Attitudes, cont’d Perceived Organizational Support (POS) Degree to which employees feel the organization cares about their well-being Employee Engagement An individual’s involvement with, satisfaction with, and enthusiasm for the organization
An Application: Attitude Surveys Attitude Surveys Eliciting responses from employees through questionnaires about how they feel about their jobs, work groups, supervisors, and the organization
Attitudes and Workforce Diversity • Training activities that can reshape employee attitudes concerning diversity: • Participating in diversity training that provides for self-evaluation and group discussions • Volunteer work in community and social serve centers with individuals of diverse backgrounds
Job Satisfaction • Measuring Job Satisfaction • Single global rating • Summation score • How Satisfied Are People in Their Jobs? • In general, people are satisfied with their jobs. • Depends on facets of satisfaction—tend to be less satisfied with pay and promotion opportunities
Causes of Job Satisfaction • Pay influences job satisfaction only to a point. • After about $40,000 a year, there is no relationship between amount of pay and job satisfaction. • Personality can influence job satisfaction. • Negative people are usually not satisfied with their jobs.
How Employees Can Express Dissatisfaction Exit Behavior directed toward leaving the organization Voice Active and constructive attempts to improve conditions Loyalty Passively waiting for conditions to improve Neglect Allowing conditions to worsen
The Effect of Job Satisfaction on Employee Performance • Satisfaction and Productivity • Satisfied workers are more productive AND more productive workers are more satisfied! • Worker productivity is higher in organizations with more satisfied workers. • Satisfaction and Absenteeism • Satisfied employees have fewer avoidable absences. • Satisfaction and Turnover • Satisfied employees are less likely to quit. • Organizations take actions to retain high performers and to weed out lower performers.
Job Satisfaction and OCB • Satisfaction and OCBs • Satisfied employees who feel fairly treated by and are trusting of the organization are more willing to engage in behaviors that go beyond the normal expectations of their job.
Job Satisfaction and Customer Satisfaction • Satisfaction and Customer Satisfaction • Satisfied workers provide better customer service. • Satisfied employees increase customer satisfaction because: • They are more friendly, upbeat, and responsive. • They are less likely to turnover, which helps build long-term customer relationships. • They are experienced. • Dissatisfied customers increase employee job dissatisfaction.
Chapter Check-up: Attitudes In general, when we think of attitudes and organizations, we think of: 1.Job Satisfaction 2. Happiness 3. Job Involvement 4. Mood at work 5. Organizational Commitment 6. 1 and 2 7. 1, 3, and 5
Chapter Check-up: Attitudes Ernesto is the known as the Donut Hut King—every day he brings donuts and coffee to the office for everyone. He says it helps everyone think more clearly! Ernesto is demonstrating: • Job satisfaction • Organizational citizenship behavior • Productivity • Job involvement • Conscientiousness Write down three things someone could do at work that would constitute an OCB. Compare your list with a neighbor’s.