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Values and Attitudes

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    1. Values and Attitudes Individual Characteristics

    2. Values Specific mode of conduct is preferable to its opposite Values carry an individuals concept of right and wrong Two parts Content-identify a conduct that is important Intensity-How important is the conduct

    3. Value System Hierarchy of values Values are stable and enduring Values are set early in life Value system generally doesnt change Values make up the paradigm through which we see the world.

    4. Types of Values Terminal set of values a list of desirable end states A comfortable life Instrumental set-the modes of behavior to achieve terminal values Ambition Differences in value systems within organizations can product conflict and management problems Are American management techniques exportable?

    5. Different Value Systems Value systems differ across age, cohort and culture boundaries Hofsteeds work relating to 5 measures of national culture Power distance Individualism-collectivism Uncertainty avoidance Time Male-Female

    6. An Exercise First Rank the terminal values and then the instrumental values on page 63

    7. Attitiudes Definition Evaluative statement about objects, people or events Three Components Cognitive the value component (killing is wrong) Affective An emotional component (I am angry at the terrorists) Behavioral-the action component, the intent to act in a certain way. (Give blood, prayer vigel) The term attitude refers to the affective component I feel good about my job

    8. Attitudes are much less stable than Values

    9. Attitudes at Work Attitudes affect the way you do your job and how you relate to others. I dont think women do a very good job around here. Cognitive component-women are inferior (value judgement) Affective component- Behavior-discriminate against women in the firm

    10. Attitudes at work Job Satisfaction- What do I think about working here Job Involvement- Linking job with self worth Organizational commitment Do I identify with the organization and its goals

    11. Consistency of Attitudes Attitudes change to fit circumstances Cognitive Dissonance Theory Individual will attempt to reduce or eliminate differences between attitudes or between attitude and behavior and thus reduce discomfort if:

    12. Reduce Dissonance Difference is important They have some control in the reduction The rewards of the dissonance isnt too great Social pressure to conform isnt too great Difference isnt reinforced by personal experience

    13. Self Perception Theory Attitudes are used, after the fact to make sense out of an action that has already occurred.

    14. Self Perception Theory If your attitudes are well established, you will use them to guide your behavior If your attitudes are not well established, you will infer your attitudes from the prior behavior.

    15. Relationship