Job Satisfaction and Related Worker Attitudes and Motivation Lynn Cao, May Le, Taylor Kotake, Ray Lin, Natalie Prieto
Article Show Me the Money! Do Financial Rewards for Performance Enhance or Undermine the Satisfaction from Emotional Labor? Personnel Psychology. 2013 By: Alicia A. Grandey, Nai-Wen Chi, and Jennifer A. Diamond
Overview • Maintain positive interactions as part of job performance, based on financial rewards. • The method assessed in Study 2 • Data collected as results in Study 2
Key Terms • Emotional Labor – Maintaining positive emotions • Deep Acting – Modifying internal states to make genuine expressions. • Surface Acting – Faking expressions without modifying feelings. • Performance-Contingent Reward - Tips and sales commissions.
The Study • Method: Experiment • Sample: 58 participants • Effects of individual differences to job performance • Given: a task, performance expectations, and reward manipulation.
Take Home Message • Train managers and employees about obligations that will impact their financial rewards. • Obtain feedback from customers on the quality of emotional performance to develop effective steps to improve employees’ performance. • Develop a performance appraisal to measure and determine who earned those rewards. • Use a contingent reward system to determine the levels of financial rewards.
Article Understanding Newcomers’ Adaptability and Work-related Outcomes: Testing the Mediating Roles of Perceived P-E Fit Variables. Personnel Psychology, 2011. By Mo Wang, Yujie Zhan, Elizabeth McCune, Donald Truxillo
Overview • Predictive effects of adaptability on newcomers’ work-related outcomes • 4 Hypotheses • 2 dimensions of adaptability • What does this mean for HR?
The Study • Sample of new employees from a large corporation in China • Time 1: 724 survey respondees • Time 2: 671 survey respondees
Key Terms • Adaptability - Learning • Adaptability - Interpersonal • Demand - Abilities Fit • Person - Group Fit • Mediator
Hypotheses Hypothesis 7: • Newcomers’ learning adaptability will be positively related to improvement in their perceived demands-abilities fit Hypothesis 8: • Perceived demands-abilities fit will mediate the relationship between learning adaptability and their job performance, job satisfaction, and turnover intentions
Hypotheses Hypothesis 9: • Newcomers’ interpersonal adaptability will be positively related to improvement in their perceived P-G fit Hypothesis 10: • Perceived P-G fit will mediate the relationship between newcomers’ interpersonal adaptability and their job satisfaction and turnover intentions
Results • Learning adaptability positively related to demands-abilities fit • Demands-abilities fit positively related to job satisfaction and job performance • Learning adaptability has a direct effect on job performance • Interpersonal adaptability positively related to perceived person-group fit • Perceived person-group fit positively related to job satisfaction
Take-Home Message • Selection process • Behavioral and situational questions • Experienced supervisor • On-boarding process • Team culture and goals • Social events • Team-building • Training • Various methods
Article Getting What The Occupation Gives: Exploring Multilevel Links Between Work Design and Occupational Values. Personnel Psychology 2013. By Erich C. Dierdorff and Frederick P. Morgeson
Key Terms • Work Design • Occupational Values • Achievement • Independence • Altruism • Status • Safety • Comfort
Overview • Seek the connection between work design and job satisfaction • Include the missing concern many other studies didn’t take into consideration • Work design=employees “get” what the job has to “give”
The Study • Data from 2 different sources • 502 participants • 439 participants • U.S Department of Labor’s Occupational Information Network (O*Net)
Results • Every work design should not be the same for every occupation • Each job has certain values • Work values relates to job characteristics, which then relates to the employee’s satisfaction with the job
Take-Home Message • Focus on those values and characteristics related to their occupations instead of all 21 characteristics • Give out WDQ/surveys to employees • Modify their work design to accommodate their occupations
Article The Role of Affect and Leadership During Organizational Change. Personnel Psychology 2012. By Myeong-Gu S., M. Susan T., N. Sharon H., Xiaomeng Z., Paul T., Natalia L.
Overview • Employee behavior and commitment are influenced by organizational change and leadership • Three hypotheses • Results conducted at the initial phase (Time 1) and later phases of change (Time 2) • Affective, normative, and transformational leadership are critical in determining employee attitudes
Key Terms • Transformational Leadership • Motivation, morale, and job performance • Affect • Positive - supportive, cooperative • Negative - defensive, competitive • Commitment • Affective - benefit • Normative - obligation • Behavior • Supportive - accept, Resistant - prevent, Creative - new approaches
The Study • Sample size: 3,264 • Large government agency in transportation • Web based survey • Time 1 - 1,001 • Time 2 - 951
Hypotheses • Positive affect during T1 will be positively related to affective and normative change before T2 • Negative affect during T1 will be negatively related to affective and normative change during T2 • Transformational leadership creates a positive relationship with affective and normative commitment to change at T1
Results • Positive affect is caused by favorable information and promotes a desire to support it • Negative affect is caused by opposing views and judgements • Transformational leadership generates feelings of loyalty and moral obligation to support the organization’s initiatives
Take-Home Message • Inform employees the logic behind the change • Provide employees with training resources • Practice an open door policy to obtain feedback • Use transformational leadership to influence
Article Why Employees Do Bad Things: Moral Disengagement and Unethical Organizational Behavior. Personnel Psychology, 2012. By Celia Moore, James R. Detert, Linda Klebe Treviño, Vicki L. Baker, and David M. Mayer
Overview • Businesses globally suffer annual losses of $2.9 trillion as a result of fraudulent activity. • Little research has been done • Key: To be able to understand and predict who is likely to engage in unethical behavior
Key Terms • Machiavellianism • Moral Identity • Trait Empathy • Propensity to morally disengage (PMD)
Hypothesis Hypothesis 1: • The propensity to morally disengage will be positively related to unethical behavior after controlling for other morally salient individual traits.
The Study • 272 students surveyed using an 8-item PMD scale (see handout) • 242 students completed a second survey one month later • Second survey measured general unethical behaviors (cheating, lying, stealing)
Results As expected, • PMD correlates positively with Machiavellianism • PMD correlates negatively with moral identity • PMD correlates negatively with both types of empathy (perspective taking and empathetic concern)
Results, cont’d • In support of Hypothesis 1, PMD significantly predicts self-reported unethical behaviors.
Take-Home Message • Emphasize behavioral interview questions • Utilize interview teams • Provide interview training • Perform background and reference checks, always
Group Take-Home Message Employers can improve employee attitudes and increase job satisfaction and motivation by addressing all areas of the HR cycle. • Selection • Onboarding/Socialization • Training and Development • Performance Appraisals/Compensation Structures