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The War of 1812
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The War of 1812

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  1. The War of 1812 Ch. 6 Sec. 4

  2. The Decision For War • 1808- James Madison defeats Pinckney to become president. • US about to enter an international crisis with Britain. • Madison tried to avoid war.

  3. Election 1808 James Madison Charles Pinckney

  4. Non-Intercourse Act • To get the British to stop seizing American ships, Madison asked Congress to pass the Non-Intercourse Act • Banned trade with France and England while authorizing the president to reopen trade with whichever country removed its restrictions first. • This plan to play France against England failed.

  5. Non-Intercourse Act

  6. Macon’s Bill Number Two • Macon’s Bill Number Two - reopened trade with both Britain and France, but if either country dropped restrictions on trade, the United States would stop importing goods from the other nation. • Napoleon announced that France would no longer restrict American trade, but it would still seize American ships.

  7. Macon’s Bill Number Two

  8. Macon’s Bill Number Two • Madison hoped this would force Britain to drop its trade restrictions. • Britain refused, US Congress passes nonimportation act against Brits. • 1812-Britain drops trade restrictions. • Two days later, US Congress declares war on Britain.

  9. The Decision for War • Most voting members of Congress were from the South and West= nicknamed “War Hawks”. • Previous trade restrictions hurt Southern and Western farmers. • Also felt the Brits were to blame with poor relations with Native Americans.

  10. The Decision for War • Tecumseh, a Shawnee leader, wanted the Native Americans to unite to protect their lands. • William Henry Harrison, governor of the Indiana territory, prepared to stop Tecumseh’s movement. • The Battle of Tippecanoe had no clear winner, but it shattered Native American confidence in their leadership. • Tecumseh and others fled to British-held Canada.

  11. Battle of Tippecanoe

  12. Battle of Tippecanoe

  13. Battle of Tippecanoe

  14. Battle of Tippecanoe

  15. The Decision For War • Looked like the British were arming and supporting the Native Americans. • June 1812, Madison asked congress to declare war on Brits and NA. • Vote split • South and West – Want war • Northeast- Against war. • Republican-led congress voted for war.

  16. Invasion of Canada • Insufficient troops and equipment, a division over the war itself, and financial concerns all added to the problems. • Madison ordered the military to invade Canada anyway. • All three American attacks against Canada failed.

  17. The Invasion of Canada • The next year, Commodore Oliver Perry secretly arranged for the construction of a fleet on the coast of Lake Erie. • On September 10, 1813, the fleet attacked the British fleet on Lake Erie. Britain surrendered. • Later, the Canadian militia stopped an American attack from the east at the Battle of Stony Creek. • By the end of 1813, the United States had not conquered any territory in Canada.

  18. Battle of Lake Erie

  19. Battle of Lake Erie

  20. Battle of Stony Brook

  21. The War Ends • In 1814 a British fleet landed troops near Washington, D.C. • Capitol seized, White House and Capitol set on fire. Madison and other officials flee. • The next British attack was on Baltimore. Baltimore was ready, and the British abandoned their attack. • That same month, British soldiers moved into New York. American naval forces defeated the British fleet. The British retreated to Montreal.

  22. Washington D.C. on Fire

  23. Washington D.C. on Fire

  24. The War Ends • New England’s opposition to war increased. • Harford Convention • Call for several constitutional amendments that would increase New England’s political power.

  25. Hartford Convention

  26. The Battle of New Orleans • In 1815 a British fleet landed near New Orleans. • The American commander, General Andrew Jackson, had troops use cotton bales to absorb British bullets. • The result was an American victory. • Jackson a national hero. • War of 1812 resulted in great American nationalism.

  27. Battle of New Orleans

  28. Battle of New Orleans

  29. Battle of New Orleans

  30. Andrew Jackson

  31. End of the War • On December 24, 1814, in the European city of Ghent, negotiators signed the Treaty of Ghent, ending the War of 1812. • The treaty restored prewar boundaries but did not mention neutral rights, and no territory changed hands. • Increased American prestige overseas and created a new feeling of patriotism and national unity.

  32. Treaty of Ghent