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Deviance & Social Control. Unit 5. Deviance. Deviance Can be good Not always voluntary Not always criminal Is a cultural universal Can be both group and individual Emile Durkheim: Deviance is necessary to define boundaries Erving Goffman: Negative evaluations are internalized. Deviance.

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Deviance

  • Deviance

    • Can be good

    • Not always voluntary

    • Not always criminal

    • Is a cultural universal

    • Can be both group and individual

  • Emile Durkheim: Deviance is necessary to define boundaries

  • Erving Goffman: Negative evaluations are internalized


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Deviance

  • Conformity

  • Stigma

    • Erving Goffman: Stigmatization leads to damaged identity


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Social Order

  • Social Control

    • Internal Social Control aka Internalization

    • External Social Control

  • Sanctions

    • Informal Sanctions

    • Formal Sanctions


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Biological Perspective of Deviance

  • Deviance is a result of biology/genes

  • Medicalization of Deviance

    • Mental Disorders

    • DSM-IV-TR

    • Psychosis

    • Extreme Paranoia

    • Schizophrenia

    • Bipolar Disorder

  • Thomas Szasz: Mental illness is a myth.


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Psychological Perspectives

  • Personality Type & Deviance Correlate

  • Hans Eysenk: Extroverts are prone to deviance

  • Albert Bandura: Deviance is socially learned

  • Leonard Berkowitz: Frustration-Aggression Hypothesis


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Sociological Perspective

  • Sociological trends occur within deviance

  • Cultural-Transmission Theory

  • Shaw & McKay: Adolescence learn deviance from peers

  • Edwin Sutherland: Differential Association


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Sociological Perspective

  • Robert Merton: Structural-Strain Theory

  • Emile Durkheim: Anomie


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Achievement of Goals

  • Robert Merton’s 5 Methods of Goal Achievement

    • Conformity

    • Innovation

    • Ritualism

    • Retreatism

    • Rebellion


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Social Control

  • Control Theory: Explain deviance as a result of failure of social control

  • Walter Reckless’s Containment Theory: Criminals are unable to resist temptation

  • Howard Becker: Behavior is a result of consequences (OPERANT CONDITIONING)


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Social Control

  • Travis Hirschi’s Social Control Theory: 4 controlling factors for deviance

    • Attachment to others

    • Commitment

    • Involvement

    • Belief

  • Michel Gottfredson contributed to expanding, saying deviants lack impulse control and ability to defer gratification


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Conflict Theory of Deviance

  • Culture Conflict Theory

  • Marxian Conflict Theory


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Labeling Theory

  • Labeling Theory:

    • Stages to Career Deviance

      • Observation of deviance

      • Labeling of deviance

      • Joining deviant subculture


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Crime

  • Crime

    • Crimes Against Persons aka Violent Crimes

    • Crimes Against Property

    • Crimes without Victims

    • White-Collar Crime aka Corporate Crime

    • Organized Crime

    • Victimless Crimes aka Moral crimes


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Crime Statistics

  • General observations:

    • More men commit crimes than women

    • More minorities commit crimes than majorities

    • Most deviants are under 25

    • Large cities have higher crime rates than smaller areas

    • Urban areas have higher crime rates than rural areas


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Factors Affecting Crime Statistics

  • Societal Control

  • Fear of retribution

  • Family involvement

  • Sociocultural (historical) factors


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Criminal Justice

  • Police

    • Legal Force

    • Normal Force

    • Excessive Force

  • Courts

    • Plea Bargaining

    • Corrections

  • Correctional System

    • Minimum Security

    • Maximum Security

    • Probation


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Perspectives on Crime

  • Functionalist: Crime provides jobs/purpose to controlling factors

  • Conflict: Crime due to competition between deviants and accusers

  • Interactionist: Crime is due to persistent negative interactions between groups


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