Warm Up 10/1 • What is white collar crime? • What is victim discounting?
Symbolic Interactionism and Deviance Chapter 7; Section 3
Objective & Dol • Objective: SWBAT to explain 2 components of symbolic interactionism and deviance: differential association theory and labeling theory • Explain consequences for both • DOL: What is secondary deviance? What are the four basic elements needed to create social bonds?
Differential Association Theory Differential Association Theory- theory that individuals learn deviance from primary groups they are exposed to. The more crime one is exposed to, the more likely they are to be criminals • 3 characteristics affect diff. association: • 1. ratio of deviants to non-deviants • 2. Whether deviant behavior is practiced by significant others • 3. Age of exposure (younger=quicker to learn)
Labeling Theory • Strain Theory, Control Theory, Differential Association theory helps us to understand whydeviance occurs (or why some are considered deviant and others are not for a particular act) Labeling Theory- theory that society creates deviance by identifying particular members as deviant
Examples • Pregnancy: who is considered deviant during pregnancy? • Teens; females. • Why? Which norms and values are they defying? • Who is more likely expected to steal a car: middle class or lower class youth? • Middle class youth who steals car may go unpunished for “borrowing” vehicle; lower class youth may go to jail because they are more likely to be expected to engage in criminal activity.
Degrees of Deviance • Think (and share if you are comfortable) of a time when you were a deviant. • Were you caught? Do you consider this to be part of your identity? • Primary Deviance: dev. Involving occasional breaking of norms that is not a part of a person’s lifestyle or self-concept
Degrees of Deviance (cont.) Have you ever been called a name and then tried to live up to that label? • What are the consequences of being called a certain name or label? How do people react? Secondary Deviance: dev. In which an individual’s life & identity are organized around breaking society’s norms. “Because of my size, I was automatically labeled a bully-type person. . . . I mean, people saw that Bloods jacket and since everybody thought I was crazy, I started acting crazy. At first it was an act, but then it became me. After being the target for drive-bys and going through different things, that became my life-style. I started retaliating back and I got more involved.” (Johnson and Johnson 1994:209)
Consequences of labeling • Stigma: an undesirable trait or label that is used to characterize someone • What are effects of carrying the following stigmas? • Mental health disorder • Unemployed • Felon • Others?
DOL • Compare Primary and secondary deviance. • What is differential association theory? • What are the social consequences of labeling? • Think of someone you know or in society who is labeled a deviant. What are the consequences of this for that person?