Nature vs. Nurture What do the cases of Anna and Genie teach us about the effects of isolation in childhood?
Socialization The lifelong social experience by which individuals develop human potential and learn patterns of their culture.
Why Socialization Is Important • Teaches us ways to think, talk and act that are necessary for social living. • Ensures that members of society are socialized to support the existing social structure. • Allows society to pass culture on to the next generation.
How Much Do You Know About Early Socialization and Child Care? True or False ? • In the United States, full-day child care often costs as much per year as college tuition at a public college or university.
How Much Do You Know About Early Socialization and Child Care? • True. • Full-day child care typically costs between $4,000 and $10,000 per child per year, which is as much or more than tuition at many public colleges and universities.
How Much Do You Know About Early Socialization and Child Care? True or False? • The cost of child care is a major problem for many U.S. families.
How Much Do You Know About Early Socialization and Child Care? • True. • Child care outside the home is a major financial burden, particularly for the one out of every three families with young children but with an income of less than $25,000 a year.
Understanding the Socialization Process • Sigmund Freud • Jean Piaget • Lawrence Kohlberg • Carol Gilligan • George Herbert Mead with Cooley • Erik H. Erikson
Understanding the Socialization Process • In your group, make sure that each member understands the contributions of the person you were assigned. • Develop a picture that illustrates the major contribution of that person to our understanding of human development. • Draw that picture on the board.
Understanding the Socialization Process • Form new groups so that each person from the board is represented. • In your new group, take turns explaining the contributions of the person your original group was assigned. • Explain the picture on the board. • Make sure each member understand the contributions these people made.
In your notebook List the major forces that have shaped who you are today.
In your notebook Draw a pie chart that illustrates the relative importance of those forces that have shaped who you are.
Major Agents of Socialization • Family • Schooling • Peer Group • Mass Media
Family is the most important agent of socialization. Unintentional socialization Effects of class on how parents raise their children? Agents of Socialization- Family
Agents of Socialization- School • Enlarges a child’s world • Our technical world expanded time here • Hidden curriculum • Other effects?
School • Profound effect on child’s self image, beliefs and values – Give examples • At school, you are evaluated and compared • Official record is kept of your school grades and behavior • How does this affect you?
School – Functionalist Persp • Schools are responsible for: • Teaching students to be productive mbrs of society • Transmission of culture • Social control and personal development • Selection, training and placement of individuals
School – Conflict perspec. • Students have different experiences based on social class, race, gender, neighborhood • Give examples • Teaching of the hidden curriculum – children learn to be neat, on time, quiet, wait their turn, remain attentive • Socialized for the work force • Middle class vs lower class and expectations
Agents of Socialization- Peer group • Peers have interests, social position and age in common. • Identity apart from family and behavior free from adult supervision.
Peer groups • Functions as an agent of socialization by contributing to our sense of belonging • Freedom from parents and authority figures • Teach what is acceptable culturally • Serve as a conduit for passing on culture • Give examples
Agents of Socialization- Mass Media • Radio, TV, Movies, Music, Magazines • TV in 98% of homes • On for 7 hours per day. • Content of TV? Violence? • Liberal Media?
Are their other Agents of Socialization you would like to discuss? Religion Work Military Prison Clubs
Consider • How does each agent of socialization differ from the others? • What happens when the influence of one agent of socialization is diminished?
Terms • Sex- the biological distinction between female and male. • Gender- the significance that a society attaches to biological categories of female and male. Masculine and Feminine.
Gender and the agents of socialization • Look back over your life and considered how your gender has shaped your identity. • How is your gender identity still informed or affected by your experiences growing up? • How has your schooling played into your understanding of what it means to be a boy or a girl? • Have you ever been ridiculed for doing or saying something that others didn't consider "masculine" or "feminine"?
Gender and the agents of socialization • How do each of the following inform or affect your gender identity? • Family • School • Peers • Media • Does your behavior reinforce these ideas?
Magazine Assignment • Discuss the magazines you read. • List the values of the magazines that were targeted towards men and the magazines targeted towards women. • Did the magazines you looked at reinforce gender roles or not? How? • How did you feel when you looked through the magazines? • Do these magazines have a positive or negative effect in society?
Gender role stereotypes in children’s commercials: • Commercials with boy models only were found to feature more away from home settings. • Commercials with girl models only were more likely to be set in the home. • Only boys were shown in anti-social behavior. • Girls in commercials show only socially acceptable behavior.
Tough question • If we are indeed shaped by society, evaluate whether an understanding of the socialization process makes one more or less free.
Are you an adult? How do you know? What does it mean to be an adult?
“The Rise and Fall of the American Teenager” Consider what it means to be a teenager and how this concept developed.
Before we get started you should be familiar with the concept of cognitive dissidence.
cognitive dissidence When presented with information that does not fit with your understanding, you have two choices: 1) Change the way you think 2) Dismiss the new information
cognitive dissidence Changing the way you think can be painful, but that is not enough reason to refuse to do it. let’s proceed…
Keep in mind this question How does the sociological explanation of deviance differ from the common sense notion that bad people do bad things?
Deviance The recognized violation of cultural norms.
Social Foundations of Deviance • Deviance varies according to cultural norms.
Social Foundations of Deviance • Deviance varies according to cultural norms. • People become deviant as others define them that way
Social Foundations of Deviance • Deviance varies according to cultural norms. • People become deviant as others define them that way • Both rule making and rule breaking involves power.
Structural Functional Analysis of Deviance • Emile Durkheim • Robert Merton
Structural Functional Analysis- Durkheim • What functions does deviance serve?