Chapter 10 The Union in Peril Protest, Resistance, and Violence
Fugitive Slave Act • Compromise of 1850 included Fugitive Slave Act • All people in free states were required to catch and return all fugitive slaves. Anyone who did not help would be jailed • Fugitive slaves were not allowed trial by jury (Violates 6th Amendment) • Were not allowed to testify at their own trial • This law led to increasing support of the Underground Railroad
The Underground Railroad • Secret group of abolitionists who helped runaway slaves travel to Canada • “Conductors” • Hid slaves in secret tunnels, provided them with food/water, escorted them to next “station”
Harriet Tubman • Harriet Tubman- former slave helped people escape North • Said to have helped over 300 slaves escape • Harriet Tubman and the Underground Railroad
Uncle Tom’s Cabin • Book by Harriet Beecher Stowe • Gave a dramatic account of the cruelty of slavery • Turned many people against slavery • North- criticized Fugitive Slave Act • South- criticized book as an attack on the South
Kansas-Nebraska Act 1854 • By the 1850s the area above Texas was ready to be recognized as a territory in preparation to becoming a state. • It was North of the 36x30 line. The Compromise of 1850 had stated that these territories could decide for themselves if they were going to be free or slave.
Kansas-Nebraska Act • Stephen Douglas- wants to construct a railroad from Chicago to San Francisco • Also wanted to unify country – strengthen Dem. Party – felt Popular Sovereignty was fair • Problem was NB was above 36 30’ – he assumed they would enter union as 2 states: 1 free & 1 slave • He thought no need for slaves on prairie – but supported repeal of Missouri Compromise to appease South
Kansas-Nebraska Act • In 1854 Congress passed a bill creating 2 territories- • Kansas (South) and Nebraska (North). • - Slavery in each territory would be decided by the voters=Popular Sovereignty. • -Results: • Bleeding Kansas-Settlers poured into KS to sway the vote – some farmers, emigrant groups and antislavery migrants lots of violence • The Democratic Party lost support in the North but gained it in the South. Democrats were pro-slavery. • The Republican Party is created and it gained power among those against slavery.